February 8, 2011
Dr. Gerald Pollack is one of the leading experts of water and what it means to your health. He's a professor of bioengineering at the University of Washington. His theory of water is ground-breaking. We all have learned that two-thirds of your body is water by weight, but in terms of the number of molecules, our body is over 99 percent water molecules!
"So I became interested in water," Dr. Pollack says. "We've been doing research in my laboratory at the University of Washington for some 10 years now on water. The book that I wrote in 2001, it's called Cells, Gels, and the Engines of Life, talks about the role of water in cell biology. Water is absolutely central." Yet textbooks by and large completely ignore the presence of water in your organs, muscles and tissues. Dr. Pollack's book addresses this discrepancy and brings to the fore the role of water.
Here is the story as interviewed by Dr. Mercola, first video is the interview and the second video a lengthy but very informative lecture in the UW. Just listen and in about two hours alltogether your understanding of the human and other life forms on earth will be different reagrdless what you have learned or believed:
The Earth's magnetic field protects our planet from most of the permanent flow of particles from the solar wind.
Fissures in this magnetic shield are known to occur, enabling the solar wind to penetrate our near-space environment. A study based on data collected by the four ESA Cluster satellites and the CNSA/ESA Double Star TC-1 spacecraft, provides new insight into the location and duration of these ruptures in the Earth's magnetic shield.
Aurora Borealis in Finnish Lapland
Aurora Borealis in Finnish Lapland 2011 from Flatlight Films on Vimeo.
Extraordinary views of earth via a time lapse sequences of photographs
This is taken with a special low-light 4K-camera by the crew of expedition 28 & 29 onboard the International Space Station from August to October, 2011.
Earth | Time Lapse View from Space | Fly Over | Nasa, ISS from Michael König on Vimeo.
The Magnetic Field of the Earth - Can it Protect us?
The Earth's magnetic field is actually protecting us from the solar wind.
This video clip shows the actual solar wind taken from the pair of early warning satellites showing the magnetic field interactions of both Venus and Earth with the actual solar wind:
Why is our thermosphere absent from climate discussions? It is the supreme ruler of the climate on the earth controlled totally by the solar wind
The thermosphere allows the curren life forms to survive on earth by taming the impact of the solar wind - visible in the night sky as Aurora Borealis, in the far North and South. The solar cycles heat the thermosphere up to 800 degrees Kelvin depending on the sun's activity. This atmospheric layer is by far the thickest part of our atmosphere that balances its own temperature by radiating heat both back to space and down to the earth.
NASA-funded researchers are monitoring a big event in our planet's atmosphere. High above Earth's surface where the atmosphere meets space, a rarefied layer of gas called "the thermosphere" recently collapsed and now is rebounding again.
These plots (on right) show how the density of the thermosphere (at a fiducial height of 400 km) has waxed and waned during the past four solar cycles. Frames (a) and (c) are density; frame (b) is the sun's radio intensity at a wavelength of 10.7 cm, a key indicator of solar activity. Note the yellow circled region. In 2008 and 2009, the density of the thermosphere was 28% lower than expectations set by previous solar minima. Credit: Emmert et al. (2010), Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L12102.
"This was the biggest contraction of the thermosphere in at least 43 years," says John Emmert of the Naval Research Lab, lead author of a paper announcing the finding in the June 19th issue of the Geophysical Research Letters (GRL). "It's a Space Age record." The collapse happened during the unusually deep solar sunspot minimum of 2008-2009. The thermosphere always cools and contracts when solar activity is low. In this case, however, the magnitude of the collapse was two to three times greater than this low solar activity could explain.
The thermosphere ranges in altitude from 90 km to 600+ km. It is a realm of meteors, auroras and satellites, which skim through the thermosphere as they circle Earth. It is also where solar radiation makes first contact with our planet. The thermosphere intercepts extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons from the sun before they can reach the ground. When solar activity is high, solar EUV warms the thermosphere, causing it to expand in thickness. (This heating can raise temperatures as high as 1400 K - hence the name thermosphere.) When solar activity is low, the opposite happens.
Emmert uses a clever technique fpr his analysis: Because satellites feel aerodynamic drag when they move through the thermosphere, it is possible to monitor conditions there by watching satellites decay. He analyzed the decay rates of more than 5000 satellites ranging in altitude between 200 and 600 km and ranging in time between 1967 and 2010. This provided a unique space-time sampling of thermospheric density, temperature, and pressure covering almost the entire Space Age. In this way he discovered that the thermospheric collapse of 2008-2009 was not only bigger than any previous collapse, but also bigger than the sun alone could explain.
It is claimed that one possible explanation is impact from carbon dioxide (CO2) in the process that causes the global warming theory as per the video clip below. We at GW do not agree with this explanation nor with the theory that CO2 is the cause of global warming but we totally agree that the earth for sure is warming up.
NCAR animation video illustrating the theory how carbon dioxide warms the lower atmosphere and cools the upper atmosphere. For us in GW this explanation is too vague and does not follow the laws of physics but as said it make sense for some. In political sense It does not matter as the earth is really warming up.
The global warming theory based on CO2 does not hold water...
The first questeion should be why now the temeprature of the arth is rising when the thermosphere is about 400 degrees F cooler than it was a few years ago? We can not just ignore this temperature blanket by saying it has so little physical mass. It is the temperature that counts as that is the one that radiates heat. There are clearly issues that we do not understand as of yet and until we do talking about CO2 causing the global warming is plain hogwash. The fact is that earth is getting warmer and we do not know why!
The powerful poorly understood factor in the global warming is the impact of the Electro Margentic Radiation (EMR) from sun especially above the altitude 30 kilometers through the whole Thermosphere up to 600 kilometers. The main elements in this high altitude are Nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2) and free Oxygen radical (O), see the first graph.
Ozone (O3) is formed from Oxygen (O2) in thunderstorms, volcanic eruptions, all electric sparks, etc.... In atmospheric conditions Ozone (O3) decomposes further into Oxygen gas (O2) and a free Oxygen radical (O). The half life is about 3 days at 20 deg C. At 250 deg C the the half life time drops to 1.5 seconds, while in cold climates like in Antarctica at -50 deg C the half life time extends to about 30 days. Ozone will not survive Thermosphere and decomposes instantly to Oxygen molecule (O2)and a free Oxygen radical (O). This free radical reacts with alsmost anything it comes in contact.
The maximum concentration of Ozone (O3) in the atmesphere occurs at altitude of about 20 miles or 32 kilometers where it forms a high efficiency UV shield against the dangerous high frequency UV radiation from the sun.. This shield is vital to most all life froms on earth and for this the Ozone hole in antarctica has been under careful scrutiny by the scientists. The size of thei hole reaches its annual maximum during September in Antarctica or at the end of the winter.
The ozone hole is the region over Antarctica with total ozone of 220 Dobson Units or lower. This map shows the ozone hole on October 4, 2004. The data were acquired by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on NASA’s Aura satellite.
The picture below on the left shows the Ozone distribution in the atmsophere, and the picture on the right shows the UV radiation amount reaching the earth's surface as a a function of the wavelength (logarithmic svcale on y-axis). The third picture below shows the whole EMR spectrum and the properties of that spectrum.
The gamma-rays are the most powerful form of EMR we know. When hitting the nucleus of an atom it can split it to new elements. The shortest EMR waves or "photons" can also pass through the earth as if the earth would be just empty space.
The X-rays can be stopped by shields like led. They are powerful enough to dislocate atoms inside the molecules when they hit them. They are used mostly in medical industry in their efforts to kill cancers and to create visual images from inside of our bodies bodies like teeth.
One must minimize the exposure to all X-ray radiation as dislocated atoms can mean altered RNA and DNA. These dislocated atoms mean changes inside the most critiacl molecules in any species. The altered RNA and RNA can now if conditions were favorable be transferred to the next generation as minor or major mutants. If these mutants can reproduce with similar mutants in large numbers and survive a new sub-species, plant or animal, is born.
UV radiation is next. We all have learned the effecst of this as the skin irritation when we have been exposed too long in the sun. On the opther side Modedare expose to sun is necessary as the UV reacts with the cholseterol in our skin that produces D vitamin that is critical for the good health.
Next is the visible light thats serves as our human vindow to the world. Some night creatures can see slightly outside this spectrum towards the infrared side of it. We havealso night vision tools using infrared light.
Next group contains microwaves that are best known from the microwave ovens. We have also been microwve transmitters that can create burning sensation on our skin even from distance.
Between microwaves and high frequency radio waves we have just recently (1970's) discovered a EMR transmission that orignates from the human body and especially the DNA molecule in it. This EMR concentrates at frequency area of a few GHz. We will hear soon more as this phenomena as it is under intense studies by several scientific groups around the globe.
The last EMR group are the radio waves covering the remainder of the spectrum. The shortest of these radio waves (FM) can be detected only if the transmitter and receiver can physically "see" each otheres making them usable only on short distances or communication to the space. The longer radio waves (AM) are heard long distances away from the transmitter as they are reflected back from the van Allen radiation belts. Solar wind forces these belts closer to the earth during the day and further during the night.
All the above waves travel at speed of 300,000 kilometers per second.
Still working with the rest of the story...
The atom size....
The atmosphere at ground level consists of 78% of Nitrogen N2, Molar Weight (MW) 28 grams, and 21% of Oxygen O2, MW at 32 garms. The remaining 1% consists mostly of Argon 0.93% MW 18 followed by Carbon Dioxide at 0.04% and several trace gases including ozone MW at 48 grams at normal level of about 0.00006%.
On the other side our atmosphere is like a distillation colon. We know that when Helium gas (He) MW 4 grams it will leave the gravity field of the earth and will likely travel to our sun. Hydrogen gas MW 2 even when released will react latest in thermosphere with Oxygen from water vapor and will sooner or later return back to earth. In our earth, the distillation colon, the various gases concentrate ....The could formation during thunderstorms on tropical areas the cloud tops raise all the way to 18 kilometers and the high speed jet sreams up to 100 meteres per second perfect the mixing of it all. Helium escapes
bbbbbb20 miles is All the different gases in ) Ozone is a heavy gas with molar weight (MW) of 48 grams and in calm environment it would settle closest to the earth followed by Carbon Dioxide CO2 (MW 44 grams), then we have Oxygen O2 ( MW 32) and calm
Our global warming disussion has ignore totally the ozone layer, the thermosphere and a peculiar property of any insulating layer (our atmosphere is just one exaple) that the actual heat loss from interior (the surface of the earth) depends on the actual conductivity inside the insulating layer and the thickness this layer. The main variable is the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from our sun over the whole radiation spectrum. We have also high frequency radiation coming from the outer space that can be a factor but that is beyond what we can understand or predict.
The CO2 is only a miniscule variable and we can not understand why it would mean antything on this scale judging from from the ice core samples reaching 650,000 years back in time. It is like concluding that the ice cream consumption has a direct correlation with drowning cases - especially during the summer seasons.
What is Ozone?
Ozone protects life on Earth from the Sun’s EMR especially against the ultraviolet (UV) radiation spetcrum (see below graphs). ATOM size?
Ninety percent of the ozone in the atmosphere sits in the stratosphere, the layer of atmosphere between about 10 and 50 kilometers altitude. The natural level of ozone in the stratosphere is a result of a balance between sunlight that creates ozone, O3, from oxygen O2 molecules and chemical reactions that destroy it. Ozone is created when the kind of oxygen we breathe, O2, is split apart by sunlight into single oxygen atoms. Single oxygen atoms, like Ozone, are extremely reactive and can re-join to make O2, or they can join with O2 molecules to make ozone, O3, and they also react readily almost with any other molecules they encounter in the atmosphere.
The total mass of ozone in the atmosphere is about 3 billion metric tons. That may seem like a lot, but it is only 0.00006 percent of the atmosphere. The peak concentration of ozone occurs at an altitude of roughly 32 kilometers (20 miles) above the surface of the Earth. At that altitude, ozone concentration can be as high as 15 parts per million (0.0015 percent).
Ozone in the stratosphere absorbs most of the ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. Without ozone, the Sun’s intense UV radiation would sterilize the Earth’s surface. Ozone screens all of the most energetic, UV-c, radiation, and most of the UV-b radiation. Ozone only screens about half of the UV-a radiation. Excessive UV-b and UV-a radiation can cause sunburn and can lead to skin cancer and eye damage.
Solar ultraviolet radiation is largely absorbed by the ozone in the atmosphere—especially the harmful, high-energy UV-a and UV-b. The graph shows the flux (amount of energy flowing through an area) of solar ultraviolet radiation at the top of the atmosphere (top line) and at the Earth’s surface (lower line). The flux is shown on a logarithmic scale, so each tick mark on the y-axis indicates 10 times more energy.
We perceive electromagnetic energy having wavelengths in the range 400-700 nm as visible light but that uis only a tiny part of the story as this EMR picture tells. Of course the biggest impact that impact us come from the EMR frequencies with wave lengths comparable to the sizes of individual atoms and molecules or their multiplies.
Although ozone high up in the stratosphere provides a shield to protect life on Earth, direct contact with ozone is harmful to both plants and animals (including humans). Ground-level, “bad,” ozone forms when nitrogen oxide gases from vehicle and industrial emissions react with volatile organic compounds (carbon-containing chemicals that evaporate easily into the air, such as paint thinners). In the troposphere near the Earth’s surface, the natural concentration of ozone is about 10 parts per billion (0.00001 percent). According to the Environmental Protection Agency, exposure to ozone levels of greater than 80 parts per billion for 8 hours or longer is unhealthy. Such concentrations occur in or near cities during periods where the atmosphere is warm and stable. The harmful effects can include throat and lung irritation or aggravation of asthma or emphysema.
Ozone Facts: What is the Ozone Hole?
The ozone hole is not technically a “hole” where no ozone is present, but is actually a region of exceptionally depleted ozone in the stratosphere over the Antarctic that happens at the beginning of Southern Hemisphere spring (August–October). Satellite instruments provide us with daily images of ozone over the Antarctic region. The ozone hole image below shows the very low values (blue and purple colored area) centered over Antarctica on October 4, 2004. From the historical record we know that total column ozone values of less than 220 Dobson Units were not observed prior to 1979. From an aircraft field mission over Antarctica we also know that a total column ozone level of less than 220 Dobson Units is a result of catalyzed ozone loss from chlorine and bromine compounds. For these reasons, we use 220 Dobson Units as the boundary of the region representing ozone loss. Using the daily snapshots of total column ozone, we can calculate the area on the Earth that is enclosed by a line with values of 220 Dobson Units (the white line in the figure below).
Chlorofluorocarbons and ozone
Many people have heard that the ozone hole is caused by chemicals called CFCs, short for chlorofluorocarbons. CFCs escape into the atmosphere from refrigeration and propellant devices and processes. In the lower atmosphere, they are so stable that they persist for years, even decades. This long lifetime allows some of the CFCs to eventually reach the stratosphere. In the stratosphere, ultraviolet light breaks the bond holding chlorine atoms (Cl) to the CFC molecule. A free chlorine atom goes on to participate in a series of chemical reactions that both destroy ozone and return the free chlorine atom to the atmosphere unchanged, where it can destroy more and more ozone molecules. For those who know the story of CFCs and ozone, that is the part of the tale that is probably familiar.
The part of the story that fewer people know is that while the chlorine atoms freed from CFCs do ultimately destroy ozone, the destruction doesn’t happen immediately. Most of the roaming chlorine that gets separated from CFCs actually becomes part of two chemicals that—under normal atmospheric conditions—are so stable that scientists consider them to be long-term reservoirs for chlorine. So how does the chlorine get out of the reservoir each spring?
Polar stratospheric clouds and ozone
Under normal atmospheric conditions, the two chemicals that store most atmospheric chlorine (hydrochloric acid, and chlorine nitrate) are stable. But in the long months of polar darkness over Antarctica in the winter, atmospheric conditions are unusual. An endlessly circling whirlpool of stratospheric winds called the polar vortex isolates the air in the center. Because it is completely dark, the air in the vortex gets so cold that clouds form, even though the Antarctic air is extremely thin and dry. Chemical reactions take place that could not take place anywhere else in the atmosphere. These unusual reactions can occur only on the surface of polar stratospheric cloud particles, which may be water, ice, or nitric acid, depending on the temperature.
The frozen crytals that make up polar stratospheric clouds provide a surface for the reactions that free chlorine atoms in the Antarctic stratosphere.
These reactions convert the inactive chlorine reservoir chemicals into more active forms, especially chlorine gas (Cl2). When the sunlight returns to the South Pole in October, UV light rapidly breaks the bond between the two chlorine atoms, releasing free chlorine into the stratosphere, where it takes part in reactions that destroy ozone molecules while regenerating the chlorine (known as a catalytic reaction). A catalytic reaction allows a single chlorine atom to destroy thousands of ozone molecules. Bromine is involved in a second catalytic reaction with chlorine that contributes a large fraction of ozone loss. The ozone hole grows throughout the early spring until temperatures warm and the polar vortex weakens, ending the isolation of the air in the polar vortex. As air from the surrounding latitudes mixes into the polar region, the ozone-destroying forms of chlorine disperse. The ozone layer stabilizes until the following spring.
We start from the first picture above covering the coposition of Thermosphere. The CO2 is the heaviest molecule in the atmosphere with molar weight at 44 grams and proportion in atmosphere of less than 0.04%, while the two main components in atmosphere are Nitrogent N2 at 78% with molar weight at 28 grams and Oxygen or O2 at 21% with molar weight at 32 grams. The atmosphere contains as an average 1% of water vapor with molar weight at 18 grams that will all condensate to water or ice and is then returned to earth when it cools down in the upper atmosphere. The high energy EM radiation and photons will break down some of the molecules reaching the Thermosphere. The concentration of the molecules and atoms through the Thermosphere follow exactly the proportional distribution one should expect..
The common explanation tof global warming is made easy to explain with such visual aids like the video clip below. Is it really so? How is it possible that a CO2 molecule does not absorb heat energy directly from the arriving sunlight? The question remains: Why CO2 is the only molecule that is important in global warming and how does this CO2 know when to switch from heat radiation mode to heat absorption mode.
The het radiation follows a simple physical law: if the surrounding area is cooler than a point in it that point loses temperature both by direct contact and by direct radiation. With contact an atom or molecule loses energy to the contact direction while with radiation largest loss goes to direction that is coldest. This applies to every subatomic particle, like photons, atom, molecule, gas, liquid, solid or whatever it is that is warmer than the environment.
Our CO2 molecule is even slightly heavier than the major components of the atmosphere O2 and N2. The carbon atom or C is the component in most of our fuels, like coal, oil and natural gas. We humans also create CO2 molecules in our bodies and eject them when we exhale. Carbon atom in CO2 like the molecukle itself as a whole reacts to specific wavelengths of light but so do all the other atoms and molecules in the universe. The electromagnetic radiation from sun comes in in all wavelengths giving ample of opportunities to every gaseous and solid atom and molecule on earth to warm up based on their own harmonic frequencies.
In physics the term light sometimes refers to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength, whether visible or not. It is mesured with five primary properties intensity, frequency or wavelength, polarization, phase and orbital angular momentum. Light, which exists in tiny "packets" called photons, exhibits properties of both waves and particles. This property is referred to as the wave–particle duality. The study of ligh/t, known as optics, is an important research area in modern physics. Perhaps we have simplified our models of global warming too much by trying to explain it all with CO2 and lost the bigger picture. We should not forget the studies done to find out the age of our universe in this context. Here we have measure the background radiation of the universe and interprete that the intensity or temperature of the background indicates how old that area of the universe might be, the picture below.
When carbon dioxide gets into the thermosphere, it acts as a coolant, shedding heat via infrared radiation. It is widely-known that CO2 levels have been increasing in Earth's atmosphere. Extra CO2 in the thermosphere could have magnified the cooling action of solar minimum.
"But the numbers don't quite add up," says Emmert. "Even when we take CO2 into account using our best understanding of how it operates as a coolant, we cannot fully explain the thermosphere's collapse."
According to Emmert and colleagues, low solar EUV accounts for about 30% of the collapse. Extra CO2 accounts for at least another 10%. That leaves as much as 60% unaccounted for.
In their GRL paper, the authors acknowledge that the situation is complicated. There's more to it than just solar EUV and terrestrial CO2. For instance, trends in global climate could alter the composition of the thermosphere, changing its thermal properties and the way it responds to external stimuli. The overall sensitivity of the thermosphere to solar radiation could actually be increasing.
"The density anomalies," they wrote, "may signify that an as-yet-unidentified climatological tipping point involving energy balance and chemistry feedbacks has been reached."
Important clues may be found in the way the thermosphere rebounds. Solar minimum is now coming to an end, EUV radiation is on the rise, and the thermosphere is puffing up again. Exactly how the recovery proceeds could unravel the contributions of solar vs. terrestrial sources.
"We will continue to monitor the situation," says Emmert.
For more information see Emmert, J. T., J. L. Lean, and J. M. Picone (2010), Record-low thermospheric density during the 2008 solar minimum, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L12102.
Author: Dr. Tony Phillips | Credit: Science@NASA,
Questioning of the validity of CO2's role in global warming by GW team