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Our Latest(?) Big Bang occurred about 13,700,000,000 years ago...

We doubt this to have been the first one or the only one but there is no solid proof for this way or that way...

Our knowledge accuracy is based on interpretation of limited and observations at their best... On the timescale the accuracy of the above number is no more than 250,000,000 years...

When was the time born? Perhaps the time and all the "dark stuff" we know to be there existed even ions before that. 

The science to discover the why's for this type of problems has no realistic funding - while in contrast, our political and religious establishments live lavishly in their forever youthful fantasies of supreme power on this tiny planet and later the universe around. 

This sacrosanct connection between the State and Religion was expressed well by late Voltaire (1694 - 1778) when he said: "If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent Him."  

The "enthusiastic" support of the US government to the basic higher R&D was highlighted in the 2006.  From the US$ 2,400 billion budget a full US$ 9 billion was added to spending for education and R&D. 

A leading industry representative highlighted this "generous" 0.3% support for the Nations Future by pointing out that this funding would fit fully inside the rounding errors of the the 2006 budget (Jan-FT).  If any technology company tries to survive even at 3% R&D expense level they are gone within a few years.

There is no denying that USA is on the road to lose it's already severely weakened position as technology leader in the world. It is not enough to have a few superior universities and then to educate the rest of the population to do some simple tasks. This was the thinking in the top US universities just a decade ago.

The politicians bought this idea instantly like another equally moronic idea that you can ship your factories to low cost countries and develop new products for your factories remotely from home. For politicians this meant easy money for all bridges to nowhere.

Whoever was the father or mother of the above ideas has done the largest financial damage ever to the USA. No wars in the past or future will come even close to this loss.

There is no military solution to conquer the world but our leaders keep on rattling their weapons until an accident happens an we are in. This is the option that eliminated all 17 empires before us and sadly we will be the number 18th.

Our killing ability is now on the level that the next life forms on earth must be capable to surviving on a totally different planet than what we have today.

This is the result when the dust settles years later after we have exhausted all our nuclear, chemical and biological warfare agents, finished all weather manipulation we can and guided in a few large asteroids - and in addition to these met everything else the others might have available...

All leaders everywhere think their people to be superior over their neighbors and capable of doing everything in a snap. In reality every country has all the brainpower and skills to do everything that someone else has just dreamed of doing.

The leaders are sleeping behind their macho-complex like they were during the WW II when Germany was about to finish their first Atom Bomb. Had Germany enough time all living today would be speaking German.

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Anyhow, for an unknown reason, an incomprehensible amount of energy was released in an instant some 13,7 Billion years ago.

What happened and how was everything after 10^-43 Seconds had passed?

The explosion triggered a chain reaction with far reaching consequences.   Supporting data for an immense explosion at this time is derived from the cosmic microwave background radiation that left measurable traces of minute temperature variations over the entire sky still remaining after the impact of galaxies and whatever is out there have been deducted from between us and the background.  The measurements are not yet that detailed and more time with better tools are needed - but we are progressing.  

What was before the Big Bang remains a puzzle!  What happened during this first known universal definable time period has a simple answer: we have not the slightest idea. 

What else may have happened before?  It would be funny if it would not be serious, that everything that we can see or detect with our current instruments adds up only to about 5% of everything that must be there if the laws of physics have any value.  The rest, or 95%, is elusive or just transparent to our current instruments.  We are though theorizing starting from our 5% knowledge base, that 25% of the missing stuff in the universe is in form of some kind of material that has a mass, a "dark material", and then we believe that the remaining 70% must be some kind of energy, a "dark energy".   A brave conclusion indeed when one starts from 5%, that is almost nothing at all! 

The new theory of supernovas speculate that our universe resemble Swiss cheese.  With this the prevailing assumptions of relatively evenly filled universe requiring the 95% more mass would be replaced with something that resembles more like a porous sponge where high material concentrations are altering randomly with totally empty spaces where the most recent supernovas had exploded.  This theory may actually explain a huge portion if not all of that that 95% and still at the same time keep our currently known physics intact.

At (10^-35) Second Mark

The temperature had cooled down to 10^27 Kelvin (K) starting from something incomprehensible during the previous period.  Temperature is important, as it relates to energy density and the probability of existence of  any mass or on layman's terms something that can be touched.  But for now everything was just a singularity, where the so far known four forces of the nature: gravity, strong nuclear, weak nuclear and electromagnetism were just one thing.  

If we still do not know the majority or 95% of it all, perhaps we are missing a few more forces too.   Anyhow, at the end of this era the strong force condenses or freezes out like water vapor on a cold surface.  The strong force is important as it somehow keeps the nucleus of an atom from breaking down further to its elements or to just sheer energy.  If this force would not exist the atoms could never form as the similarly charged particles would just fly apart.  Today we have stable atoms up to 210 units in our atom weight scale, beyond that magic number the atoms are unstable and keep on breaking down with the time following a more or less spontaneous but specific paths determined solely by their atom number.  So, what could be the sole or nature of the strong force?

At (10^-32) Second Mart

The universe is now expanding an "inflationary" way, as gravity appears to act temporarily as a repulsive force, or was the strong force still young and forming, or did we see a glimpse of the fifth force that left us when it disappeared  a few moments later?  Regardless, what it was the distance between the objects in this universe increased "superluminally", more than 100 times faster than the speed of light, e.g. everything that was created just disappeared instantly beyond the light horizon.  

Matter and antimatter were  freely created and destroyed.  The miniature Lego-parts for our world, the quarks and leptons were born.  However, for us the most important factor is a small "flaw" in the laws of the Nature, a minor asymmetry between the matter and antimatter reactions that allowed one matter particle to be created against each one billion matter-antimatter interactions.  One extra photon was also left over from each of those interaction events.  Could this be the trick of the frozen fifth force, the antigravity?  Your old physics told the light to have a dual nature, a photon or a moving wave - like magnetism and electricity.  The proposed new model tells that we have in a plain a spinning pair of charged particles.

 

At (10^-10) Second Mark

A great freeze out, at the end of this time period the three forces: gravity, strong force, and electroweak forces are fully formed - condensed and frozen out.  This is the electroweak era.  The slight asymmetry between matter and antimatter is now also fully frozen. 

 

At 3 Minute Mark

the particle era begins with temperature at the beginning of this period at 10^15 K.  The electroweak force splits to weak and  electromagnetic forces, and the particle era charges now out in full swing.  The slight asymmetry between the matter and antimatter keeps on producing minute amounts of matter per each interaction.   The spontaneous production of protons and antiprotons continues until the temperature cools below proton Mass of 938 MeV.   As the universe has about equal amount of photons and particles the photon interactions with matter form continuously particle and antiparticle pairs, that  produces still more matter.  The temperature cools down to 10^12 K corresponding to 100 MeV at the end of this era.  This pre-universal soup contains now the seeds to the stuff we can see and touch although at this time the universe is still a "little" too hot for comfort.  As a comparison to exist an electron positron pair is stable at energy level of 1 MeV or a 10^10 K temperature or below.   At this temperature level the era of ordinary material is beginning. 

 

From 13,699,999,999- to 13,400,000,0000

The universe has cooled to 10^9 K and almost everything visible is Hydrogen and Helium with small traces of other lighter atoms in the periodic table.   This era of material formation continues until the universe is about 300,000 years or 10^13 seconds old.  there is now enough material for all stars and galaxies to start forming. 

 

From 13,400,000,000 - to 9,100,000,0000

NASA calculates that there are about 10^21 stars in the universe, when a star is something similar in principle like our sun, which is a large stable nuclear reactor, and can have nothing or a multitude of planets orbiting it.  We now estimate that inside the vision field of Hubble telescope we have about 125 * 10^9 galaxies.  Whatever it is, where we live in, is just more than simply huge.   And we could see only 5% of it if it would be close enough for our eyes.  Something else is out there, but we have not seen it, nor have we been able to measured it, or tasted it, nor have we any idea what it really is - except that it just waits to be discovered! 

It could as well be similarly frozen antimatter and energy in parallel worlds.   And should we try to figure it out?  Did the three ships that Columbus sailed into sunset produce any useful results for mankind?  Does the understanding of the huge power available from nuclear reactions produce any beneficial results for the mankind?  With or without backlash our own survival on this planet will depend on our mastering the use of this huge energy source.  Did the landing to Moon produce any beneficial results to the mankind?  In general, how have the life altering inventions for mankind been created?  Is it done by political and religious maneuvering or by scientific research of the still unknown?

All stars themselves live a violent life forming independent nuclear reactors ignited and held together by their gravity. They have three distinctive phases in their lives.  They start by burning hydrogen, then on the second phase after all hydrogen is used they switch to a hotter fuel, helium, and the outer sphere of this reactor expands tremendously in size but still finding a balance with the universe. In the final third stage, if the start is large enough it switches to ignite to the Carbon.  This reaction however is so powerful that no gravity field can hold it together and it all explodes to nothing as a supernova. 

With this we can always as what happened 13.7 billion years ago?  Was it a major supernova in the lineage of many supernovas or was it the beginning of it all?

 

From 9.100,000,000 to 4,600,000,000

Earth, the third planet from the sun in our solar system located far in the outskirts of our Milky Way Galaxy, was fully formed and open for business.  Meteorites falling today on earth have also uniform age of about 4,600,000,000 years.  However, surface of earth itself is much younger as the rocks are continuously recycled through the tectonic plate movements caused by the earth rotation and molten lava between the solid core and the thin crust on top of which we live.  What is the meaning of age of an atom anyhow, or the age of currently visible lava blocks, mountains, or anything else above or under the ground, or the age of the Universe?

 

Staus on the Year 4,600,000,000

Various inorganic and organic soups and gases are commonly available every day on earth following the interactions between solar and inter galactic radiation, liquid water, winds, rain, day and night cycle with more or less gentle temperature variations, lava flows with huge temperature variations, dissolving minerals (all elements of the periodic table) and with everything spiced frequent lightning.  Our laboratory is certainly well equipped for anything we want to experiment with.

 

And what is this stuff?

Element abuncae

During the process of stellar evolution nuclear fusion reactions take place within a star. These give rise to the formation of the chemical elements. Clues to the processes involved may be deduced from the graph below, which shows the cosmic abundances of elements (y-axis) plotted against atomic number (x-axis). The abundances are measured relative to 1 million silicon atoms and the y-axis is a logarithmic scale. In this case the data are for the solar-system and abundances have been measured from the optical analysis of the solar spectrum.

There are three important observations to be made from this graph:

  1. The graph has (overall) a smooth trend from left to right, that is from light to heavy elements. This indicates that abundances of elements in the solar system are the greatest for the light elements and the least for the heavy elements.

  2. Superimposed upon the smooth trend described above is a smaller scale irregularity such that elements with even atomic numbers have higher abundances than those with odd atomic numbers.

  3. Some elements have anomalous abundances. Hydrogen (H) and Helium (He) and Iron (Fe) have anomalously high concentrations and the elements Lithium (Li), Boron (B) and Beryllium (Be) have anomalously low concentrations.

It is thought that the early Universe consisted almost entirely of the element hydrogen, with a small amount of helium present too. Hydrogen, therefore, is thought to be the starting material from which all other elements have been built. This is consistent with the very high abundance of hydrogen in the solar abundance profile. The process may be thought of as a series of fusion reactions which weld together simple atomic nuclei to build increasing complex atomic nuclei. The manner in which this is done depends upon the internal temperature of the star and on its mass.

Early in star development hydrogen is utilized to manufacture the element helium. As the hydrogen in the star is used up, the star contracts and its temperature rises so that nuclear reactions can take place which permit the synthesis of the elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, from helium. When the helium is almost completely consumed the carbon and oxygen can be transformed into elements with masses up to that of silicon. Increasing nuclear reactions, at higher temperatures lead to the formation of elements with masses up to that of iron (Fe). Beyond this point heavier elements cannot be formed by the process of nuclear fusion because the temperatures required are higher than those found in stars.

Elements heavier than iron are formed by the addition of neutrons which are absorbed by the atomic nucleus. The very high abundance at the iron peak suggests that nuclei of the element iron are formed more readily than they are used in the process of neutron capture. 

The anomalously low concentrations of the elements Li, Be and B indicate that they are by-passed in nuclear fusion reactions and their genesis seems to be explained by the partial decay of heavier nuclei of the elements carbon and oxygen.

Differences in concentration between elements with even and odd atomic numbers can be explained by the greater stability of atomic nuclei with paired neutrons. Thus elements with even atomic numbers have the greater nuclear stability. This allows their abundances to grow.

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