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1800:On Jan. 18, 1800 Napoleon established the Banque de France as a state bank. As Napoleon detested the bankers, he made himself not only governor of the bank, but also appointed himself first minister of Treasury.

1800:JEWISH BANKING - BANK OF ENGLAND: Political Zionism During this period England waged a war against the United States from 1812 until 1814. This war was instigated by England after the United States Congress refused to renew the charter of the foreign-owned Bank of the United States, which had been the central bank of America from 1791 until 1811.

By 1815 the national debt had ballooned to 885 million pounds. This completely unnecessary and unwinnable war which resulted in approximately three million military personnel and at least one million civilians losing their lives, cost 831 million pounds 44 of which over 2.5 billion pounds were still outstanding in 1914. The principal of 504 million pounds increased fivefold as a result of compound interest.

An astute agrarian and parliamentarian, William Cobbett (1763-1835), at this time perceived what was afoot and wrote as follows: “I set to read the Act of Parliament by which the Bank of England was created. The investors knew what they were about. Their design was to mortgage by degrees the whole country . . . lands . . . houses . . . property . . . labor. The scheme has produced what the world never saw before: starvation in the midst of abundance.”

The affairs of the Bank of England remained secret, and it was not until 1833, 139 years later, that a sanitized version of its accounts was presented to Parliament by means of the Act of 1833. In 1800 a member of Parliament, Sir William Pultney, proposed the formation of a national bank after having made “vigorous attacks” against the bank. In 1824 another member of parliament, David Ricardo, submitted a detailed plan to convert the Bank of England into a national bank. Both attempts failed.

At the start of World War I in 1914, the British national debt stood at 650 million pounds. On March 31, 1919 it had increased to 7.434 billion pounds, of which 3 billion pounds is still outstanding after 94 years at a coupon of 3.5% per annum. In World War II the national debt rose by almost 200% from 7.1 billion pounds in 1939 to 20.1 billion pounds in 1945. Currently it stands at almost 1.2 trillion pounds. 50

For over 300 years England has been drawn into the thrall of a ruthless clique of international bankers, whose parasitic empire now threatens the existence of this island nation. The once proud people of yeomen and peasants, out of ignorance and indifference, has become a multicultural melting pot of debt slaves. Unless its original citizens take responsibility to familiarize themselves with the true nature of their problem, they are doomed within a few generations to irreversible enslavement and genetic destruction.


1800: Alessandro Volta wrote a paper about simple batteries
1800: 19th Century. Early in the century, Pavsky, a professor at the St. Petersburg Academy for Divinity, translated the Gospel of Matthew from Greek into Russian. Other books of the Christian Greek Scriptures were also translated into Russian and Pavsky served as editor. Later, Pavsky translated the Hebrew Scriptures from Hebrew into Russian. About the same time Makarios, an archimandrite of the Orthodox Church, also translated the Hebrew Scriptures into Russian. Both Pavsky and Makarios were punished for their efforts and their works were put into the church archives.
1800: The Dutch East India Company (the first international mega-corporation) is dissolved.
1800: Mary Jones a 16-year old Welsh girl walked barefoot for 25-miles to buy a Welsh Bible from a clergyman. She had saved her money for six years, when Mary learned that all the Bibles had been sold, she sobbed. Deeply moved the clergyman gave Mary one of his own Bibles. This clergyman reflected on the many others who needed Bibles, he discussed this problem with some friends in London, the result was the formation, in 1804 A.D.(J) of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Its premise: to provide people with affordable Bibles in their own language, printed "without note or comment"  (ability to read is essential to all development).
1800-1823: Pope Pius VII, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
1800-1823: John Dalton revolutionized chemistry by laying the groundwork for the periodic table of the elements.
1801: (January 1) The first asteroid, Ceres, was discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi
1801: The legislative union of Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland is completed to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1801-1809: (Republic of the USA) Thomas Jefferson, 3rd president of the United States and author of the Declaration of Independence. He was one of the most brilliant men in history. His interest were boundless and his accomplishments were great and varied. He was a philosopher, educator, naturalist, politician, scientist, architect, inventor, pioneer in scientific farming, musician, and writer, and he was the foremost spokesman for democracy of his day. Jefferson was 54 years old when he became the vice president. His duties were not clearly set forth in the Constitution, and to Jefferson it appeared that he only had to preside over the Senate. This he did ably. He also wrote the "Manual of Parlimentary Practice," a book of parliamentary rules (published in 1801), many of which still apply to both houses of Congress. In other matters, Jefferson had little to do with the Federalist administration of President Adams. As president, Jefferson strengthened the powers of the executive branch of government.
1801-1825: (The Romanovs), Alexander I, Tsar of all the Russias, (1815-1825 A.D.(J)) King of Poland.
1801-1844: Charles Nodier, Grand Master of Prieure de Sion
1801: British inventor, William Congreve, began experimenting with "stick guided" rockets and made substantial improvements to their propulsion and guidance systems. These rockets were used extensively in battle by the British Empire, and are they to which our national anthem refers when it says "...the rockets red glare...".
1801-1815: (French Empire) France, Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte the first Emperor of the French empire.
1806: (French Empire) Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France, refuses to recognize the "Holy Roman Empire" as existing effectively bringing it to its end. [Emperor Francis II released the Germanic states from their allegiance to the "Holy Roman Empire." He resigned from the Roman Imperial Dignity and withdrew to his national government as emperor of Austria.
1807-1818: At the risk of his own life, Robert Morrison translated the Bible into Chinese.
1808: The importation of slaves into the United States is banned.
1808: Rothschilds open London office (Rothschields and Freshfields families have financial benefit connection to the slave trade, FT: June 27, 2009; UK National Archives)
1808-1839: Ottoman Empire, When Mahmud II came to the throne, the empire was in desperate straits. Control of North Africa had passed to local notables. In Egypt Muhammad Ali was laying a foundation for an independent kingdom. Had the European nations cooperated, they could have destroyed the Ottoman Empire. In 1826, five years after Greece began its fight for independence, the Janizaries revolted to stop reforms. Mahmud had them massacred and constructed a new military system in the style of European armies. He also reformed the administration and gained control over some of the provincial notables, with the exception of Egypt. By the time of Mahmud's death the empire was more consolidated and powerful, but it was still subject to European interference.
1809: Finland negotiates an autonomic position as a part of the Tsarist Russia leaving the Swedes wondering what happened.  Finland has a full autonomy as part of Russia with own language, self government and her own currency, "Markka".  The Swedes had been oppressing the Finns for centuries by extracting young men to it's endless wars around Europe and the breaking point was reached.  It took Russia only a little over 100 years to repeat the error of the Swedes and on December 6th, 1917 Finland declared herself independent.  The concurrent communist revolution in Tsarist Russia helped, especially when the Finns gave Lenin a hiding place when he needed one.
1809-1817: (Republic of the USA) James Madison, 4th president of the United States. Like the first three Presidents, Madison was enmeshed in the ramifications of European wars. Diplomacy had failed to prevent the seizure of ships, goods and men on the high seas, and a depression wracked the country. Madison continued to apply diplomatic techniques and economic sanctions, eventually effective to some degree against France. But continued British interference with shipping, as well as other grievances, led to the war of 1812. The war, for which the young nation was ill prepared, ended in a stalemate in December 1814 when the inconclusive Treaty of Ghent which nearly restored prewar conditions, was signed. But, thanks mainly to Andrew Jackson's spectacular victory at the Battle of New Orleans (Chalmette) in January 1815, most Americans believed they had won. Twice tested, independence had survived, and an ebullient nationalism marked Madison's last years in office, during which period the Democratic-Republicans held virtually total power.
1813: From the time of the British and Foreign Bible Society's formation in 1804, by 1813, associate Bible societies had been formed in Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Russia. In time, Bible societies in other countries were added. However, relatively few translators knew Hebrew or Greek and there were literally thousands of languages, therefore, when the British and Foreign Bible Society sponsored translations, the translators very often based their work on the English-language King James Version (ability to read is essential to scientific development).

1814: Rothchilds provide funding for Wellington's army. Napoleon was defeated in 1815 in the battle of Waterloo, Belgium.

1814-1815: (Bourbon dynasty - French Empire) France. king Louis XVIII, becomes king of France after Napoleon Bonaparte's first abdication in 1814, at Napoleon's return to power in 1815, however, king Louis XVIII flees back into exile.

1815-1820: Indonesia, The eruption of the Volcano Tambora in 1815 was the largest eruption in historic time. About 150 cubic kilometers of the mountain that reached earlier up to 13,000 feet disappeared (150 times more than the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens). Ash fell as far as 800 miles (1,300 km) from the volcano. In central Java and Kalimantan, 550 miles (900 km) from the eruption, one centimeter of ash fell. The Volcanic Explosivity Index of the eruption was 7 on the scale from 0 to 8.  The eruption column reached a height of about 28 miles (44 km). The collapse of the eruption column produced numerous pyroclastic flows. As these hot pyroclastic flows reached the ocean where they caused additional explosions. During these explosions, most of the fine-fraction of the ash was removed. The eruption formed a caldera. An estimated 92,000 people were killed by the eruption. About 10,000 direct deaths were caused by bomb impacts, tephra fall, and pyroclastic flows. An estimated 82,000 were killed indirectly by the eruption by starvation, disease, and hunger.

In the aftermath of the eruption.  In 1816 the average temperature on the earth was down over 1 degrees C according to the British Naval ship logs.  This temperature drop was caused by aerosols high in the atmosphere preventing the sun light from reaching the earth's surface  The temperature drop was much more drastic in some areas on the globe.  Up to 5 degrees C temperature drops were common in Europe and especially in Canada..  Crops failed totally on some areas and famine was common for several years to come.

1815: (Bourbon dynasty) Napoleon Bonaparte is defeated by the combined forces of Prussia and Britain armies under the command of Britain's Field Marshall, the duke of Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo at Waterloo, Belgium. Napoleon Bonaparte is exiled for his second time to the island of St. Helena off the African coast in the Atlantic Ocean.

Developing circumstances soon allowed the Rothschilds to formulate a plan which would guarantee them the financial control of Europe, and soon the world. It began with taking advantage of the outcome of the Battle of Waterloo, which was fought at La-Belle-Alliance, seven miles south of Waterloo, in a suburb of Brussels. Early in the battle, Napoleon appeared to be winning, and the first secret military report to London communicated that fact. However, upon reinforcements from the Prussians, under Gebhard Blucher, the tide turned in favor of Wellington. On Sunday, June 18, 1815, Rothworth, a courier of Nathan Rothschild, head of the London branch of the family, was on the battlefield, and upon seeing that Napoleon was being beaten, went by horse to Brussels, then to Ostende, and for 2,000 francs, got a sailor to get him to England across stormy seas. When Nathan Rothschild received the news on June 20th, he informed the government, who did not believe him. So, with everyone believing Wellington to be defeated, Rothschild immediately began to sell all of his stock on the English Stock Market. Everyone else followed his lead, and also began selling, causing stocks to plummet to practically nothing. At the last minute, his agents secretly began buying up the stocks at rock-bottom prices. On June 21, at 11 PM, Wellington's envoy, Major Henry Percy showed up at the War Office with his report that Napoleon had been crushed in a bitter eight hour battle, losing a third of his men.

This gave the Rothschild family complete control of the British economy, and forced England to set up a new Bank of England, which Nathan Rothschild controlled. The original privately owned Bank of England was established in 1694 to the City of London. It is positioned on the north bank of the Thames River, covering an area of 677 acres or one square mile (known as the "wealthiest square mile on earth"), it has enjoyed special rights and privileges that enabled them to achieve a certain level of independence since 1191. In 1215, its citizens received a Charter from King John, granting them the right to annually elect a mayor (known as the Lord Mayor), a tradition that continues today. 'The City' has actually become the last word in the country's national affairs, with Prime Minister, Cabinet, and Parliament becoming only a front for the real power. Accordingly, when the queen enters 'The City,' she is subservient to the Lord Mayor (under him, is a committee of 12-14 men, known as 'The Crown'), because this privately-owned corporation is not subject to the Queen, or the Parliament.

However, that wasn't the only angle he used to profit from the Battle of Waterloo. Mayer Amschel Rothschild sent some of William's money to his son Nathan in London, and according to the Jewish Encyclopedia: "Nathan invested it in 800,000 pounds of gold from the East India Company, knowing it would be needed for Wellington's peninsula campaign. He made no less than four profits: (1) on the sale of Wellington's paper (which he bought at 50¢ on the dollar); (2) on the sale of gold to Wellington; (3) on its repurchase; and (4) on forwarding it to Portugal. This was the beginning of the great fortune." After Napoleon's defeat, Prince William returned to resume his rule. Buderus was made a Baron, and the Rothschilds were the richest bankers in Europe.

In 1817, France, in order to get back on their feet again, secured loans from a French banking house in Ouvrard, and from the Baring Brothers in London. The Rothschilds saw their chance to get a firm grip on the French economy, and on October, 1818, Rothschild agents began buying huge amounts of French government bonds, which caused their value to increase. On November 5th, they were dumped on the open market, creating a financial panic as their value declined. Thus, the Rothschilds gained control of France.

1815-1824: (Bourbon dynasty) France. king Louis XVIII, ascended the throne when the monarchy was restored after the overthrow of Napoleon and ruled as a constitutional sovereign. Born in Versailles, he was the brother of Louis XVI of France and in his early life was known as the comte de Provence. He remained in Paris after the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789 but escaped to Belgium two years later. After Louis XVI's execution in 1793 he proclaimed himself regent, and after the death of his brother's heir, Louis XVII, in 1795, he took the title of Louis XVIII. He lived as an exile in various European countries until he became king after Napoleon's first abdication in 1814. On Napoleon's return to power in 1815, however, Louis again fled to Belgium; later the same year he was restored to the throne after Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo. The Charter, or constitution, that he promulgated in 1814 established a bicameral legislature, property qualifications for voters, and limitations on freedom of the press.
1817-1825: (Republic of the USA) James Monroe, 5th president of the United States. Monroe was president during the "Era of Good Feelings." It was called that because there were few political battles and his Democratic-Republican Party ruled almost unopposed. It was a transitional period in which the nation's democratic institutions and capitalist economy were taking form. National identity, as opposed to narrow state interest, was growing as evidenced by a westward movement and the construction of roads and canals. People who were leaving their old colonial homes and moving west on the expanding frontier began to think of themselves not as Virginians or New Yorkers, but principally as Americans. The roads and canals, or internal improvements as they were called, were built to tie together the nation's commerce. They were considered a national priority and were often funded by Congress, whose members understood that an improved flow of commerce in any section of the country would also benefit their own constituencies. 
1820: Achromatic lenses became available to scientists, leading to great improvements in the quality of both telescopes and microscopes
1820-1830: (The Hanoverians) British Monarchy, George IV (1820-1830) was 48 when he became regent in 1811. He had secretly married a Roman Catholic, Mrs. Fitzherbert. In 1795 he officially married Princess Caroline of Brunswick, but the marriage was a failure and he tried unsuccessfully to divorce her after his accession in 1820 (Caroline died in 1821). Their only child Princess Charlotte died giving birth to a stillborn child. George's fondness for pagentry helped to develop the ceremonial side of the British Monarchy. After his father's long illness, George resumed his royal visits; he visited Hanover in 1821 (it had not been visited by its ruler since the 1750s), and Ireland and Scotland over the next couple of years. Beset by debts, George was in a weak position in relation to his Cabinet of Ministers. His concern for royal prerogative was sporatic; when the Prime Minister Lord Liverpool fell ill in 1827, George at one stage suggested that ministers should choose Liverpool's successor.
1823: John Joseph Griffin published the first of a series of textbooks called "Chemical Reactions". This brought the study of, and experimentation with, chemistry into the hands of the common man.
1823: The Monroe Doctrine, on December 2nd during President James Monroe's seventh annual message to the United States Congress, details of the "Monroe Doctrine" were expressed, outlining the foreign policy of the United States of America against and opposing the extension of European control or influence in the Western Hemisphere. This doctrine laid the groundwork for American Imperialism in the world in that any intervention by a European nation or interest into the countries of the Western Hemisphere would be treated as an act of aggression and therefore the United States could move to protect its sovereignty with force of arms. This would therefore check colonialization of the Western Hemisphere by European powers.
1823: Joseph Smith a 17-year old, told his family that an angel named Moroni had appeared to him and had shown him a set of golden plates. Four years later he claimed that he was given the plates and the exclusive divine power to translate them, in 1830, "The Book of Mormon" was published from Smith's manuscripts, financed by a prosperous believer, thus was the formation of the Mormon religion or also known as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.
1823-1829: Pope Leo XII, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
1824: C. H. Pfaff published the first major textbook about analytical chemistry
1824-1830: (End of Bourbon dynasty) France, king Charles X rules France. He was the grandson of Louis XV and the younger brother of kings Louis XVI and Louis XVIII. Charles was known as Charles Philippe, comte d'Artois, until he became king. During the French Revolution he was one of the leaders of the émigrés. He subsequently lived in Great Britain. After the accession (1814) of Louis XVIII to the French throne, Charles returned to France, where he headed the ultraroyalist party of reaction. His favoritism during his reign toward the Roman Catholic church and the aristocracy aroused great opposition, leading to the revolution of July, 1830. Charles was forced to abdicate and again went into exile in Great Britain. Later he lived on the Continent.
1825: Michael Faraday isolated the chemical benzine at the Royal Institute in London.
1825-1829: (Republic of the USA) John Quincy Adams, 6th president of the United States, who devoted his life and great ability to serving the people of the United States. Of the 81 years he lived, 50 were spent in public office. His service ended with his death at the U.S. Capitol in Washington D.C. Adams's career of public service was one of the most varied and distinguished in American history. He served his nation as a diplomat, senator, secretary of state, president, and for the last 17 years of his life, as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives. The measures he took in these high offices, profoundly assisted the growth and development of the United States. The expansion of U.S. borders westward and southward, the acquisition of Florida, and the formulation of the Monroe Doctrine all were due, at least in part, to the efforts of John Quincy Adams.
1825-1855: (The Romanovs), Nicholas I, (or Nikolai), Tsar of all the Russias.
1826: The Russian czar was induced to have the Russian Bible Society placed under the management of the "Holy Synod" of the Russian Orthodox Church, which then effectively suppressed its operations.
1829-1831: Pope Pius VIII, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
1829-1837: (Republic of the USA) Andrew Jackson, 7th president of the United States and the first Westerner to be elected president. His election marked the end of a political era dominated by the planter aristocracy of Virginia and the commercial aristocracy of New England. Jackson himself was an aristocrat, but from a rougher mold than his predecessors. He fought his way to leadership and wealth in a frontier society, and his success established a bond between him and the common people that was never broken. Small farmers, laborers, mechanics, and many other Americans struggling to better themselves looked to Jackson for leadership. Jackson's followers considered themselves the party of the people and denounced their political opponents, the National Republicans and later the Whigs, as aristocrats. In fact, Jacksonian leaders were nearly as wealthy, and as different from the common people, as the Whigs. For all of Jackson's talk about helping working people, his policies accomplished little for them. His banking policies
1830: (Adherents) Mormonism
1830-1837: British Monarchy, (The Hanoverians) William IV (1830-1837) became heir apparent at the age of 62 when his older brother died. William IV, was dominated by the Reform crisis, beginning almost immediately when Wellington's Tory government (which William supported) lost the general election in August 1830. Pledged to parliamentary reform, Grey's Whig government won a further election which William had to call in 1831 and then push through a reform bill against the opposition of the Tories and the House of Lords, using the threat of the creation of 50 or more peers to do so. The failure of the Tories to form an alternative government in 1832 meant that William had to sign the Great Reform Bill. Control of peerages had been used as a party weapon, and the royal prerogative had been damaged. The Reform Act also introduced standardized rules for the franchise (different boroughs had previously had varying franchise rules) and by extending the franchise to the middle classes.
1830-1848: (First Republic) France, king Louis-Philippe, called the Citizen King the last of the Bourbon dynasty of kings and the last king of France. Louis Philippe belonged to the house of Bourbon-Orleans, a branch of the French royal family stemming from Philippe I, duc d'Orleans, the brother of King Louis XIV. From his birth until 1785 Louis Philippe was known as the duc de Valois and subsequently as the duc de Chartres until 1793, when his father was guillotined, and he succeeded him as the duc d'Orleans. Like his father, he was in sympathy with the French Revolution, the upheaval in France that resulted in the establishment of the First Republic, and in 1790 he joined the Jacobins, members of a French radical political club. Two years later, at the age of 18, he was given a command in the revolutionary army and, as a colonel, fought at the battles of Valmy and Jemappes.
1831: Faraday demonstrated that electricity can be produced with magneti
1831-1846: Pope Gregory XVI, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
1833: Regency of Greece declares Orthodox Church of Greece to be independent.
1837-1841: (Republic of the USA) Martin van Buren, 8th president of the United States and the first president born after the United States won its independence. He was regarded by his contemporaries as such a wily and artful politician that they dubbed him the "Little Magician" and the "Red Fox of Kinderhook." However, these unflattering nicknames could not obscure his statesmanlike qualities or his valuable contribution to the political development of the nation. He was a political broker, pragmatic in his approach to problems and constantly concerned about winning elections. Nevertheless, he was intellectually committed to Jeffersonian democracy, and as governor of New York and president of the United States he instituted a number of farsighted economic and political reforms. These included bank deposit insurance, the independent treasury system, and a limit on labor hours. He also played a major role in the creation of the Democratic Party.
1837-1901: (The Hanoverians) British Monarchy, Victoria (1837-1901) aged 18, as women could not inherit the Hanoverian throne, that passed to Victoria's uncle; the union with Hanover had lasted 123 years. During the early years of her reign, Victoria was heavily influenced by her Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, and (after her marriage in 1840) by her husband, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The marriage was very happy and they had nine children, most of whom married into European royal families. In 1861 Albert died of typhoid. Victoria retreated into seclusion, but kept up her constitutional duties, eventually resuming her public life. Victoria's long reign coincided with a fundamental change in the nature of the British monarchy by which its power declined and was replaced by influence. In 1837 the government was still seen to a large extent as the Sovereign's government.
1839-1842: First Opium War, in the mid 19th Century, China and the European countries were not on good terms. At the root of all this conflict was economics. Due to a lack of interest in European goods, all the European countries, specifically Britain were running a trade deficit with China. In order to reverse the trend, the British started exporting opium from India and into China. This had the desired effect, soon China began to run a trade deficit with the British. In order to stem the overflow of silver from China, Chinese officials began aggressively enforcing its laws against opium use and distribution (Britain had similar laws, however Britain continued to smuggle this illegal drug for its own selfish interest). The actions of Chinese authorities against this illegal and lucrative trade infuriated British politicians despite the fact that opium was illegal in Britain as well. This conflict resulted in two wars.
1839-1861: Ottoman Empire, Abdulmecid I the first of Mahmud's two sons to become sultan's of the empire, like his father before him carried out further reforms to strengthen the empire. These reforms were especially in education and law. Nevertheless, by mid-nineteenth century it was evident that the Ottoman cause was hopeless. Czar (or Tsar) Nicholas I of Russia commented on the Ottoman Empire in 1853: "We have on our hands a sick man, a very sick man." The conflicting interest of European states propped up the Ottoman Empire until after World War I. Great Britain especially was determined to keep Russia from gaining direct access to the Mediterranean from the Black Sea. Britain, France, and Sarinia helped the Ottomans during the Crimean War (1854-1856) to block the Russians.
1840: Julius Robert von Mayer stated that the radiation of heat and light from the sun is the source of all other forms of energy on the earth.
1840: Jean Baptiste Boussingault showed that animals cannot obtain nitrogen from the atmosphere, but must rely on it being part of their food.
1841: (Republic of the USA) William Henry Harrison, 9th president of the United States he was one of the most important figures in the early westward expansion of the United States. Harrison took millions of acres of land from Native Americans by treaty or conquest. His exploits on the frontier, especially his defeat of the Shawnee at the Battle of Tippecanoe in1811, obscured his Virginia plantation background. It was not the wealthy planter and slave owner whom the people elected to the presidency. Instead, they elected the legendary Old Tippecanoe, pictured as a log cabin dweller and a drinker of hard cider. The popular appeal of this misleading characterization won Harrison the political eminence he had vigorously sought. Unfortunately, he did not live to enjoy it. He was the first president to die during his term in office, and his administration, which lasted exactly one month, was the shortest in U.S. history.
1840-1845: (Republic of the USA) John Tyler, 10th president of the United States, and the first vice president to become president upon the death of the chief executive. Since the Constitution of the United States was vague on the subject, Tyler made the decision to have himself sworn in as president instead of considering himself acting president and calling for new elections. This action was briefly denounced in Tyler's own day, but it set a precedent that has been followed ever since. Although he is considered one of the minor presidents, Tyler deserves to be remembered for this precedent, as well as the annexation of Texas, the one great achievement of his administration.

1844: Judaism and Khazars: The altered version of the "Kol Nidre" (All Vows) prayer created serious difficulties for the so-called or self-styled "Jews" when its wording became public property. It apparently did not remain a secret very long, although the Talmud, the main steam of Judaism, states "the law of revocation in advance was not made public." The altered version of the "Kol Nidre" (All Vows) prayer soon became known as the "Jews Vow" and cast serious doubt upon "oaths, vows or pledges" given to Christians by so-called or self-styled "Jews." Christians soon believed that "oaths, vows or pledges" were quite worthless when given by so-called or self-styled "Jews." This was the basis for so-called "discrimination" by governments, nobles, feudal landholders, and others who required oaths of allegiance and loyalty from those who entered their service.

An intelligent attempt was made to correct this situation by a group of German rabbis in 1844. In that year they called an international conference of rabbis in Brunswick, Germany. They attempted to have the "Kol Nidre" (All Vows) prayer completely eliminated from the Day of Atonement ceremonies, and entirely abolish from any religious service of their faith. They felt that this secular prologue to the Day of Atonement ceremonies was void of any spiritual implication and did not belong in any synagogue ritual. However the preponderant majority of the rabbis attending that conference in Brunswick came from eastern Europe. They represented congregations of Yiddish-speaking so-called or self-styled "Jews" of converted Khazar origin in eastern Europe. They insisted that the altered version of the "Kol Nidre" (All Vows) prayer be retained exactly as it was then recited on the Day of Atonement. They demanded that it be allowed to remain as it had been recited in eastern Europe since the change by Meir ben Samuel six centuries earlier. It is today recited in exactly that form throughout the world by so-called or self-styled "Jews." Will the 150,000,000 Christians in the United States react any differently when they become more aware of its insidious implications?

1844-1865: William Hale, an Englishman, made vast improvements in the Congreve type rockets. Mr. Hale built the worlds first "spin stabilized" rocket and eliminated the "guidestick".

1844-1885: Victor Hugo, Grand Master of Prieure de Sion
1845-1849: (Republic of the USA) James K. Polk, 11th president of the United States. He was one of the nation's most successful presidents. During his one term in office the United States expanded westward to the Pacific Ocean, California and the New Mexico Territory were won in the Mexican War (1846-1848) and the Oregon country was acquired through negotiations with Great Britain. A Jacksonian Democrat, Polk succeeded in putting the economic principles of the Democratic Party into law. However, he failed to prevent a split in his party over the slavery issue. Despite his noble achievements, Polk has now been consigned to relative obscurity among U.S. presidents. Although an able and hard-working leader, he was not an imaginative statesman. However, as president he reflected the then-prevalent American belief in manifest destiny, the idea that the United States had a natural right to control all the territory between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans.
1846-1876: Pope Pius IX, rules the Catholic church in Rome
1848: Karl Marx(May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) andFrederick Engelspublish their Communist Manifesto. In the nineteenth century the socialist movement made great strides in Christendom. In the year 1848 the Communist Manifesto, giving a brief, clear statement of scientific socialism, was issued by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, and revolutionary movements swept through Europe. Even Pope Pius IX was obliged to flee from Rome, not to return till 1850. The socialist element, when sharing to any extent in government, has aimed at weakening and overthrowing so-called capitalistic government; whereas democratic elements in government have weakened the power of imperial, absolute monarchs. There has been no cleaving together in love or kindredness between these more modern, radical elements and the older imperial types of world domination. It has been like trying to mix iron with clay.
1849-1850: (Republic of the USA) Zachary Taylor, 12th president of the United States. He was a career army officer who was elected on the strength of the victories he won in the Mexican War (1846-1848). As a soldier he was a courageous and inspired leader who could always be found where the fighting was the thickest. He never lost a battle. His men admired him and called "Old Rough and Ready." He was disdainful of military pomp and formal dress and was known for his plainness of manner and appearance. Taylor was president for little more than a year. Although he lacked political experience, he resolutely faced up to the principle issue of the day, the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Although he was a Southern slaveholder, he was first and foremost a supporter of the Union, upholding the national interest over sectional interest. Like President Andrew Jackson, Taylor refused to compromise his principles to appease the South. His death paved the way for a succession of issue-straddling presidents.
1850-1853: (Republic of the USA) Millard Fillmore, 13th president of the United States and the second vice president to finish the term of a deceased president. He succeeded Zackery Taylor at a critical moment in U.S. history. The Mexican War (1846-1848) had renewed the conflict between the Northern and Southern states over slavery, since it had added new territories to the United States. The debate whether these territories should be admitted as free or slave states precipitated the crisis that threatened civil war. Much to the relief of Northern and Southern politicians, Filmore pursued a moderate and conciliatory policy. He signed into law the Compromise of 1850, which admitted one state as a free state and allowed slave owners to settle in the others. The compromise did not solve the basic problem of slavery but did preserve peace for eleven years. During that time the North gained the industrial power that enabled it to defeat the South when civil war eventually came.
1852: (Adherents) Jehovah's Witnesses formed
1852-1870: (Second Republic - French Empire) France, Emperor Napoleon III emperor of the French (1852-1870), who revived the Napoleonic empire in the mid-19th century and led France to defeat in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871). Once Louis Philippe was ousted in 1848, Louis Napoleon renewed his quest by offering himself ad candidate for the presidency of the new French republic. To the astonishment of political veterans he won by a landslide. His triumph was diminished however, by a Royalist victory in the legislative elections in 1849 and by the constitution's limiting him to one four-year term. He resolved that delimma by a coup d'etat on December 2, 1851, assuming dictatorial powers and extending his term in office to ten years. Despite continued pockets of opposition, clear evidence of widespread popular support encouraged him to convert the Second Republic into the Second Empire; because Napoleon I's son had been known as Napoleon II, Louis Napoleon took the title Napoleon III. Historians divide his reign into two periods.
1853-1857: (Republic of the USA) Franklin Pierce, 14th president of the United States. He came to office in the decade before the Civil War. Although his roots were in the Northern, largey antislavery, state of New Hampshire, Pierce sided with the South on the slavery issue. His position on this issue caused him, in the words of a friend, "to immolate himself on the altar of slavery." Yet Pierce was devoted to the federal Union of the states, his chief aim being to uphold the Constitution of the United States as a sacred and therefore unchangeable document and to avoid civil war at all cost. Although he was a weak, but well-meaning and honest, man with a social nature, few presidents have led so tragic a personal life or have left office so publicly hated or discredited. However, it is uncertain that even a president of superior ability could have dealt effectively with the great problems of the pre-Civil War era.
1854-1856: Crimean War, England entered this war between Russia and Turkey on the side of the Turks because Russia was seeking to control the Dardanelles (or Hellespont) and thus threaten England's Mediterranean sea routes.
1855-1881: (The Romanovs), Alexander II, (or Aleksandr), Tsar of all the Russias.
1856: The "Holy Synod" of the Russian Orthodox Church, under pressure from the "people" to gain further Bible knowledge, undertook its own synod translation, doing so with guidelines that were carefully crafted to insure that expressions used would conform to church views.
1856-1860: Second Opium War, was a result of the illegal British smuggling of opium into China, Britain forced China by her naval military might to continue receiving this illegal drug to offset the British economic deficit with China.
1857: Gregor Johann Mendel began his study of genetics.
1857-1861: (Republic of the USA) James Buchanan, 15th president of the United States. He was a prominent figure in American political life for nearly half a century, holding some of the nation's highest offices. As president he played a role in the split that developed in his own Democratic Party. The split allowed for the election of Republican Abraham Lincoln as president in 1860. Buchanan tried to conciliate the Southern states to keep them from seceding from the federal Union over the issue of slavery. He failed, and his term in office was followed by the Civil War between the North and the South. He has been criticized ever since for not taking a more active stand against secession. However, although Buchanan was not a heroic figure, his policy of compromise was not unreasonable. Most presidents before him had taken the same approach, and even his decisive successor, Lincoln, tried conciliation as long as he could.
1859: Charles Darwin published "The Origin of Species".
1859: Konstantin von Tischendorf, a gifted German linguist, finds the oldest known complete copy of the Christian Greek Scriptures in a monastery at the base of Mount Sinai. It became known as the Codex Sinaiticus and was probably produced 50-years before Jerome completed the Latin Vulgate. Tischendorf published it, thus making it accessible to scholars.
1860: Louis Pasteur greatly enhanced the quality of life for mankind with his "Germ Theory of Disease"
1861-1865: (Republic of the USA) Abraham Lincoln, 16th president of the United States and one of the great men of history. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican Party president. A humane, far-sighted statesman in his lifetime, he became a legend and a folk hero after his death. Lincoln rose from humble backwoods origins to become one of the great presidents of the United States. In his effort to preserve the Union during the Civil War, he assumed more power than any preceeding president. If necessity made him almost a dictator, by fervent conviction he was always a democrat. A superb politician, he persuaded the people with reasoned word and thoughtful deed to look to him for leadership. He had a lasting influence on American political institutions, most importantly in setting the precedent of vigorous executive action in time of national emergency.
1861-1876: Ottoman Empire, Abdulaziz, the second and last son of Mahmud to become sultan of the empire continued to carry out reforms in a vain attempt to strengthen his crumbling empire.
1863: (Adherents) Baha'i Faith formed
1863: Jules Verne had "From the Earth to the Moon" published. This was a science fiction work which had a great impact on many scientists and scholars of the day.
1863-1950: (Adherents) About 50 more churches have been formed to fill various tastes of the people.
1863: American Civil War: The Emancipation Proclamation takes effect in Confederate territory.
1865-1869: (Republic of the USA) Andrew Johnson, 17th president of the United States, Johnson was the first U.S. president to be impeached, which means that he was charged and tried for misbehavior in office. Johnson became president at a critical time in American history. He succeeded Abraham Lincoln when Lincoln was assassinated in April, 1865 only a few days after the Civil War ended. In addition to these trying circumstances, Johnson also had trouble cooperating with other political leaders while proceeding to accomplish his aims. Johnson's impeachment was the result of a struggle to preserve the powers of the presidency in the face of attacks by a determined Congress of the United States. Even though Johnson contributed materially to his own difficulties, he must be respected for his staunch defense of the rights reserved to the president by the Constitution of the United States.
1869-1870: First Vatican Council, 20th ecumenical, affirms doctrine of papal infallibility (i.e. when a pope speaks ex cathedra on faith or morals he does so with the supreme apostolic authority, which no Catholic may question or reject).
1869-1877: (Republic of the USA) Ulysses S. Grant, 18th president of the United States. Grant was a puzzling figure in American public life. He was a failure in his early ventures into both business and military life. In four years of commanding Union forces he climbed to the highest rank in the U.S. Army and directed the strategy that successfully concluded the Civil War in 1865. His two terms as president were at the time considered by many historians to be the most corrupt in the country's history until the latter part of the 20th century of course. Yet from accounts of Grant's contemporaries, as well as his own memoirs, there emerges a personality of strong character and considerable dignity.
1869-1948: India;  Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born at Porbandar, a coastal city in Kathiawad (now a part of the Gujarat State) on the 2nd October 1869. He was the youngest child of his parets Karamchand and Putlibai.  He was shot on January 30th, 1948 by a Hindu worker.  The feelings were raw after India was just been divided to Pakistan and India and many considered Gandhi too liberal towards Muslims.
1870: (Kingdom of Italy) Italy is established as a kingdom independent from the Vatican.
1870: The Beginning of the Restoration of True Worship. Charles Taze Russell, and a group from Allegheny, Penn. U.S.A. begin a systematic study of the Bible.
1870-1871: Franco-Prussian war, provoked by Bismarck as part of plan to create a unified German empire. Bismarck surmised that his publication of the EMS Dispatch would goad the French government into declaring war (on July 19, 1870) on Prussia and that the other German states would fall into line behind Prussia. A brilliant campaign led by von Moltke brought a string of German victories, culminating in the French rout at Sedan, where the emperor, Napoleon III, was captured (September 1). In Paris, Napoleon was deposed and a provisional government was formed, but French resistance was made useless after the surrender of the French commander, Marshal Bazaine, at Metz (October 27). Paris, however, held out until January 1871, when the Prussian seige finally succeeded. France was forced to pay a huge indemnity and give up most of Alsace and Lorraine. Again Paris resisted, until the Commune of Paris was crushed militarily by the new French government. The war had far-reaching consequences.
1870-1875: Charles T. Russell and his associates learn that when Christ comes again he is to be invisible to human eyes and that the object of his return is the blessing of all families of the earth.
1871: (Germanic Empire) January 1st, Germanic Empire established, with William I being declared Caesar or Kaiser. Germany assumes role as KING OF THE NORTH. The interest of this KING OF THE NORTH began to clash with those of the modern KING OF THE SOUTH, the Anglo-American dual world power. The Germanic KING OF THE NORTH was the most lively and mighty champion of the former SIXTH WORLD POWER, Rome. When the German Parliament opened in October of 1871, Emperor William I voiced the conviction that "the new German Empire will be a reliable shield for peace."
1872: C.T. Russell and his study group come to appreciate the ransom price that Christ provided for humankind.  In 1876 article by C.T. Russell, published in October issue of Bible Examiner, in Brooklyn, New York, points to 1914 as the end of the Gentile times or THE APPOINTED TIMES OF THE NATIONS.
1873: James Clerk Maxwell finished a work called "A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism", which laid the mathematical foundations for the modern science of electronics.
1875: Rothschilds Fund British acquisition of Suez canal
1876-1909: Ottoman Empire, Abdulhamid II ruled as sultan of the empire, he developed strong ties with Germany. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 brought Russia almost to Constantinople. The Ottomans were forced to sign the harsh Treaty of San Stefano, which would have ended Ottoman rule in Europe except that the European states called the Congress of Berlin. It succeeded in propping up the old empire for a few decades more
1877: Queen Victoria of Britain is proclaimed Empress of India.
1877-1881: (Republic of the USA) Rutherford B. Hayes, 19th president of the United States. He achieved the presidency in the closest electoral contest in U.S. history, winning over Samuel J. Tilden by one electoral vote. During his term in office, Hayes supported measures he felt were right and just, without fear of making political enemies. While his achievements were not as dramatic as his election, he helped heal the wounds of the Civil War by taking the last federal troops out of the South and thus ending the post-war period known as Reconstruction.
1878: (Republic of the USA) The Panama Canal and American Imperialism, French engineer, Ferdinand de Lesseps who built the Suez Canal, began to dig across the Isthmus of Panama, which was then part of Columbia. Tropical disease and engineering problems halted construction on the canal, but French business (the New Panama Canal Company) still held the rights to the project. President Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of the United States of America, (1901-1909) agreed to pay $40 million for the rights, and he began to negotiate with Columbia for control of the land. He offered $10 million for a fifty-mile strip across the isthmus. Columbia refused. "We are dealing with a government of irresponsible bandits," Roosevelt stormed. "I was prepared to ... at once occupy the isthmus anyhow, and proceed to dig the canal. But I deemed it likely that there would be a revolution in Panama soon." Covertly was sponsored by the United States Imperial interest of course.
1878-1888: Heinrich Hertz built and tested the first working radio transmitter and receiver.
1878-1903: Heinrich Hertz built and tested the first working radio transmitter and receiver.
1878-1903: Pope Leo XIII, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
1880: Konstantine Tsiolkovsky was a mathematics teacher at a small Russian school. In his spare time, he expanded on the ideas of Isaac Newton and developed the mathematical and theoretical formulae describing rocket propulsion in space.
1881: (Republic of the USA) James A. Garfield, 20th president of the United States. He held the office of president four months before he was fatally shot by an assassin. He served in the House of Representatives of the Congress of the United States for 17 years and had a distinguished record there. He was only lightly touched by the corruption in government that marked the period after the Civil War ended in 1865. Garfield's assassination by a disappointed office seeker gave new impetus to demands for reform in the federal employment system, called the civil service.
1881: The Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society is formed by Charles Taze Russell. At first, the Society distributed Bibles produced by other Bible societies. By 1890 AD, the Society entered directly into Bible publishing, sponsoring the first of a number of Bible editions.
1881-1885: (Republic of the USA) Chester A. Arthur, 21st president of the United States, who gained the presidency when James Garfield was assassinated in 1881. Arthur rose above loyalty to his party to enact the first comprehensive U.S. civil service legislation. The act signaled a new era of reform in national politics, but lost Arthur the support of his party, and after completing Garfield's term he was forced to retire from public life.
1881-1894: (The Romanovs), Alexander III, Tsar of all the Russias.

1881-1903: Zionism: First Aliyah, 1881-1882 ...1903; a secret plan to populate and take over all the Palestinian Lands to recreate the State of Israel .

This from the pen of the Israeli historian Benny Morris wrote:

The major cause of tension and violence throughout the period 1882-1914 was not accidents, misunderstandings or the attitudes and behaviors of either side, but objective historical conditions and the conflicting interests and goals of the two populations. The Arabs sought instinctively to retain the Arab and Muslim character of the region and to maintain their position as its rightful inhabitants; the Zionists sought radically to change the status quo, buy as much land as possible, settle on it, and eventually turn an Arab-populated country into a Jewish homeland.

For decades the Zionists tried to camouflage their real aspirations, for fear of angering the authorities and the Arabs. They were, however, certain of their aims and of the means needed to achieve them. Internal correspondence amongst the olim from the very beginning of the Zionist enterprise leaves little room for doubt.

 Morris provides excerpts from three letters written in 1882 by these first arrivals:

Vladimir (Ze'ev) Dubnow, one of the Biluim wrote to his brother, the historian Simon Dubnow, in October 1882: "The ultimate goal ... is, in time, to take over the Land of Israel and to restore to the Jews the political independence they have been deprived of for these two thousand years .... The Jews will yet arise and, arms in hand (if need be), declare that they are the masters of their ancient homeland." (Dubnow himself shortly afterward returned to Russia.)

Ben-Yehuda, who settled in Jerusalem in September 1881, wrote in July 1882 to Peretz Smolenskin in Vienna: "The thing we must do now is to become as strong as we can, to conquer the country, covertly, bit by bit ... We will not set up committees so that the Arabs will know what we are after, we shall act like silent spies, we shall buy, buy, buy."

In October 1882 Ben-Yehuda and Yehiel Michael Pines, who had arrived in Palestine in 1878, wrote to Rashi Pin, in Vilna: "We have made it a rule not to say too much, except to those ... we trust ... the goal is to revive our nation on its land ... if only we succeed in increasing our numbers here until we are the majority [Emphasis in original] .... There are now only five hundred thousand Arabs, who are not very strong, and from whom we shall easily take away the country if only we do it through stratagems and without drawing upon us their hostility before we become the strong and populous ones.

1882: Thomas Edison discovered the "Edison Effect", which eventually led to the invention of the vacuum tube.
1882: British government controls Egypt, Egypt is a British dependency, although under its native khedive, the British army stayed in Egypt, and British will was really the law. In 1914 A.D.(J) the Egyptian khedive sided with Turkey, which had joined Germany in the First World War, the British took over in Egypt, deposed the khedive and declared Egypt a British Protectorate. [Britain and the United States of America became opponents of the prophetic KING OF THE NORTH and together they came into the position of the KING OF THE SOUTH of Daniel chapter 11.]
1883: August 26, Krakatoa explodes cooling the global climate for several years to come.

1884: Germany: "The Communist Manifesto" (1884), Karl Heinrich Marx was a German philosopher, political theorist, historian and a revolutionary that is credited as the founder of communism. “The history of society is the history of class struggles."  While Marx remained a relatively obscure figure in his own lifetime, his ideas began to exert a major influence on workers' movements shortly after his death. This influence grew by the victory of the Marxist Bolsheviks in the Russian Revolution in 1917, and since then it's impact has touched and is still modifying the thoughts on every continent on this planet.

Marx argued correctly that capitalism like all previous socioeconomic systems, will in due time produce internal tensions which will lead to their destruction.  Just as capitalism replaced feudalism, capitalism itself would be displaced by communism.  What we today call "terrorism" has it's roots in the same problem - growing economic and political injustice and tensions that those in power refuse to remedy - when unchecked long enough a revolution will become unavoidable.

His father, Heinrich Marx (1777–1838), born Herschel Mordechai, the son of Levy Mordechai (1743-1804) and Eva Lwow (1753-1823), descended from a long line of rabbis but who converted to Lutheran Christianity.  With this family background it is easy to understand that the Jews were eager to study the Marxist doctrine and were also the first ones to understand the much deeper meanings of this philosophy.  They soon discovered the power of this philosophy and since they have used it effectively for their advantage.  With that they became the major players in the Russian communist revolution and afterwards they have kept their loyalty with the democratic parties as the principles of having and exercising the power of the people are still the same.

1885-1889: (Republic of the USA)  Grover Cleveland, 22nd president of the United States. Cleveland adopted the credo "a public office is a public trust," he spent much of his energy resisting the political influences and the party favoritism characterized by that era. As a result he managed to offend almost every political faction and to win the anger of many private organizations and individuals as well. It was for his stubborn courage and integrity, rather than for any outstanding achievement as president, that Cleveland is remembered.
1885-1918: Claude Debussy, Grand Master of Prieure de Sion
1886: The Divine Plan of the Ages is published, the first volume of the series called Millennial Dawn (later known as Studies in the Scriptures).
1886-Presnt: BURMAH OIL: The company was founded in Glasgow, Scotland in 1886 by David Sime Cargill to develop oil fields in the Indian subcontinent. In the late 1890's, it passed into the ownership of Sir Campbell Kirkman Finlay, whose family already possessed vast colonial interests through their trading vehicle James Finlay and Co.

It became an early and major shareholder in British Petroleum, so restricted its downstream interests to the subcontinent, where BP had no business. It played a major role in the oil industry in South Asia for about a century through its subsidiaries, and in discovery of oil in the Middle East through its significant interest in British Petroleum.[1] It marketed itself under the BOC brand in Burma, Pakistan and Assam (in India) and through a joint venture Burmah-Shell with Shell in the rest of India.[2]

Burmah Oil Company created mechanised drilling in Magwe Division's oil fields (Yenangyaung, Chauk, and Minbu).[1] Until 1901, when Standard Oil Company began operating in Burma (now also known as Myanmar), Burmah Oil Company was the sole oil company to operate in Burma.In 1923, the company secretly gave £5,000 -- the equivalent of perhaps millions in today's money -- to future Prime Minister Winston Churchill to lobby the British government to allow them to monopolise Persian oil resources.[3] The company operated in Burma until 1963, when Ne Win nationalised all industries in the country.[1] Based on nationalized assets of Burmah Oil, the Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise was created.[4]

The company was involved in a landmark legal case, Burmah Oil Co. v Lord Advocate, concerning the destruction of oil fields in Burma by British forces.[5]

In 1966, Castrol was acquired by Burmah, which was renamed Burmah-Castrol.[6]

The Bank of England came to the rescue of Burmah Oil after the company made large losses on its tanker fleets in 1974. The core of the rescue operation was the provision of a year's grace so that the company could become smaller and more viable.[1]

In 2000, Burmah-Castrol was acquired by the then BP Amoco (now renamed BP).[7]

1888: The grandson of William I came to the German imperial throne as William II, commonly called Kaiser Wilhelm. Says one authority: "He was a firm believer in the divine right of kings and of kaisers, (Caesars), in particular. On numerous occasions he spoke of himself as 'the instrument of the Lord,' and took such excessive interest in the army, ... but his selfish ambition had no bounds. It is now greatly conceded that almost from the first day of his reign he began to plan for world domination; that he ... resolved that he, William, would show the world that one man could raise himself to the topmost pinnacle and not only rule Germany, but through Germany might rule the civilized earth.". He declared that he owed his 'awful responsibility toward the Creator alone, wherefrom no man, no minister, no parliament, no people can relieve the sovereign.'
1889-1893: (Republic of the USA) Benjamin Harrison, 23rd president of the United States. Harrison was a quiet, industrious political leader and a veteran of the Civil War. A grandson of President William Henry Harrison (1841), he won the presidency through his family name and party loyalty, aided by the support of Civil War veterans. Harrison signed important economic legislation while in office, including the Sherman Antitrust Act, the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, and the McKinley Tariff Act. Under his administration part of the Oklahoma Territory was opened to white settlers in 1890, Idaho and Wyoming became states.
1893-1897: Grover Cleveland, 24th president of the United States and the only chief executive to be re-elected after a defeat. Cleveland continued with the same policies of his earlier presidency.
1894-1917: (The Romanovs), Nicholas II, (or Nikolai), Tsar of all the Russias, the last of the Romanovs, he and his entire family are murdered in 1918 after the Bolshevik revolution in 1917. Prince George Lvov rules a Provisional Government in 1917.
1895: (German Empire) Kaiser Wilhelm declared that "the German Empire has become a world empire." He mixed himself in with the Middle East, for four years later, a group of German bankers got from the Turkish sultan a concession for building a railroad across Asiatic Turkey from the Straits of Bosporus, opposite Constantinople, southward to Baghdad in Mesopotamia. Looking to further imperial communications, he said: "Germany's future lies upon the water." The total tonage of his navy became second only to that of Britain. The KING OF THE SOUTH looked on nervously.
1896: Theodore Herzl (May 2, 1860–July 3, 1904) was an Austro-Hungarian journalist who was the father of modern political Zionism.

As the Paris correspondent for Neue Freie Presse, Herzl followed the Dreyfus Affair, a notorious anti-Semitic incident in France in which a French Jewish army captain was falsely convicted of spying for Germany. He witnessed mass rallies in Paris following the Dreyfus trial where many chanted "Death to the Jews!" Herzl came to reject his early ideas regarding Jewish emancipation and assimilation, and to believe that the Jews must remove themselves from Europe and create their own state. In June, 1895, he wrote in his diary: "In Paris, as I have said, I achieved a freer attitude toward anti-Semitism... Above all, I recognized the emptiness and futility of trying to 'combat' anti-Semitism." In Der Judenstaat he writes:

The Jewish question persists wherever Jews live in appreciable numbers. Wherever it does not exist, it is brought in together with Jewish immigrants. We are naturally drawn into those places where we are not persecuted, and our appearance there gives rise to persecution. This is the case, and will inevitably be so, everywhere, even in highly civilised countries—see, for instance, France—so long as the Jewish question is not solved on the political level. The unfortunate Jews are now carrying the seeds of anti-Semitism into England; they have already introduced it into America.

From April, 1896, when the English translation of his Der Judenstaat (The State of the Jews) appeared, Herzl became the leading spokesman for Zionism.

Herzl complemented his writing with practical work to promote Zionism on the international stage. He visited in April, 1896, and was hailed at, by a Jewish delegation. In London, the group received him coldly, but he was granted the mandate of leadership from the Zionists of the East End of London. Within six months this mandate had been approved throughout Zionist Jewry, and Herzl traveled constantly to draw attention to his cause.

"We, the Jews, are a people -- one people. When we sink, we become revolutionary proletariat, the subordinate officers of a revolutionary party; when we rise, there arises also our terrible power of the purse." (Theodor Herzl, 'The Jewish State', 1896)

In June 1896, he met for the first time with the Sultan of Turkey, but the Sultan refused to cede to Zionists, saying, "if one day the Islamic State falls apart then you can have Palestine for free, but as long as I am alive I would rather have my flesh be cut up than cut out Palestine from the Muslim land." In 1897, at considerable personal expense, he founded Die Welt and planned the First Zionist Congress. He was elected president (a position he held until his death in 1904), and in 1898 he began a series of diplomatic initiatives intended to build support for a Jewish country. He was received by the German emperor on several occasions, was again granted an audience by the emperor in, and attended The Hague Peace Conference, enjoying a warm reception by many other statesmen.

In 1902–03 Herzl was invited to give evidence before the British Royal Commission on Alien Immigration. The appearance brought him into close contact with members of the British government, particularly with Joseph Chamberlain, then secretary of state for the colonies, through whom he negotiated with the government for a charter for the settlement of the Jews in Al Arish, in the Sinai Peninsula, adjoining southern Palestine.

On the failure of that scheme, which took him to, he received, through L. J. Greenberg, an offer (August 1903) on the part of the British government to facilitate a large Jewish settlement, with autonomous government and under British, in British East Africa. At the same time, the Zionist movement being threatened by the Russian government, he visited St. Petersburg Sergei Witte, then finance minister, and Viacheslav Plehve, minister of the interior, the latter of whom placed on record the attitude of his government toward the Zionist movement. On that occasion Herzl submitted proposals for the amelioration of the Jewish position in. He published the Russian statement, and brought the British offer, commonly known as the " Uganda Project," before the Sixth Zionist Congress (Basel, August 1903), carrying the majority (295:178, 98 abstentions) with him on the question of investigating this offer, after the Russian delegation stormed out.

In 1905, after investigation, the Congress decided to decline the British offer and firmly committed itself to a Jewish homeland in the historic Land of Israel.

1896: (June 2) Guglielmo Marconi applied for the first patent on a radio apparatus in England. {R.9.4}
1896: Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel launched the first camera carrying rocket, which took aerial photographs of a small Swedish Village. The camera was recovered via parachute. The craft was first designed in France in 1888.
1897-1901: (Republic of the USA) William McKinley, 25th president of the United States. His interest in politics took him to the U.S. House of Representatives (Rep., Ohio; 1877-1891), where his campaign for a protective trade policy finally resulted in the high McKinley Tariff Act of 1890. In 1896 he ran a successful presidential campaign with the help of big business and Republican kingmaker Mark Hanna. A new high tariff soon appeared. McKinley led an administration that marked the beginning of vast changes in American attitudes and ways of living. During his administration the United States emerged from more than a century of isolation from world affairs to become one of the great powers of the world. His election in 1896 stifled demands for radical economic and social reforms, but his assassination at the beginning of his second term paved the way for the moderate reforms that followed. Although he was extremely popular, McKinley was not a strong president. He was opposed to going to war with Spain to liberate Cuba.
1898: Republic of the USA) American Imperialism. The Spanish-American War, was a brief war that the United States waged against Spain in 1898. After the sinking of the USS Maine on the night of February15th which was anchored in Havana Harbor which cost the lives of 266 officers and men, there was an outcry in the United States for war with Spain, especially from the newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst in the pages of the New York Journal where he claimed the United States had a "Manifest Destiny" and worked up the readers of his paper into a war frenzy.[A U.S. naval study conducted in 1976 suggested that spontaneous combustion in the ship's coal bunkers caused the explosion, not Spanish saboteurs.] Actual hostilities in the war lasted less than four months, from April 25 to August 12, 1898. Most of the fighting occurred in or near the Spanish colonial possessions of Cuba and the Philippines, nearly halfway around the world from each other.
1899: Marconi founded "The Marconi Wireless Telegraph Corporation of America", which became the "Radio Corporation of America" (RCA) twenty years later.
1899-1902: Boer Wars. The existence of two Boer republics, (the South African Republic and the Orange Free State) wanted to preserve their independence and to build their republics into regional forces. They were therefore not prepared to become part of a united South Africa under British authority. However, in 1886 gold was discovered on the Witwatersrand in the South African Republic. By the middle of 1899 the British public would clearly accept the possibility of British intervention in South Africa and that no European power would intervene on the behalf of the South Africa republic should war be declared. However, when further offers of franchise reform by the Pretorian Government was rejected tensions mounted. When British military reinforcements were dispatched to South Africa in September 1899, the governments of the two republics decided that Britain intended to destroy the independence of the two republics by force.