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Zero - 200: Finland, the Early Roman Iron Age.
9-24: China, Wang Mang (interregnum) Dynasty rules
13: Rome, Caesar Augustus sets up the emperor's bodyguard known as the Praetorian Guards which are later enlarged by his successor. These Guards had been seen only near Rome in small detachments, later Tiberius changed this, he had the Guards encamp permanently in full force close to the city walls of Rome. By this arrangement he held in check any unruliness of the people. This attached great importance to the commander of the Guards. The Guards came to enjoy special privileges and in time became so powerful that they were able to put emperors in office or to dethrone them, according to their will.
14: Rome, August 19th, Caesar Augustus, (Octavius) dies leaving as successor his stepson Tiberius.  In reality Caesar Augustus did not want Tiberius to be his successor, he hated his stepson because of his bad qualities. Augustus was forced to accept Tiberius as his successor only after every other hope had failed. Emperor Augustus had no sons, his sister had a son Marcellus, but he died. His daughter had two sons, Gaius and Lucius, and these Augustus appointed as his successors. These also died, he loved his dear stepson Drusus, the younger brother of Tiberius but again Drusus died on September 14, 9 AD This left only Tiberius, who was a capable general and the top-ranking soldier of the Roman Empire. In the year 12 AD Agrippa the great general of the Emperor Augustus died at the age of fifty-one years, then Livia, the mother of Tiberius, induced the emperor with great difficulty, to replace Agrippa with her son Tiberius. To replace Agrippa, though required Tiberius to become the son-in-law of the emperor. 
14-37: Rome, Caesar Tiberius rules the Roman Empire 
25-220: Eastern Han Dynasty in China,  
29: Christianity is born, crucifixion of Jesus.
29-33: Jesus Christ earthly ministry. The end of 69-weeks of years, when Jesus presents himself to John to be baptized at the Jordan River, and is annointed with holy spirit as the "Christ" or "Messiah," in 29 A.D.(J) in fulfillment of Daniel's prophecy at Daniel 9:1-27. For Jesus' life story and the Bible prophesies that he fulfilled.
33: Jesus impaled on torture stake.  Holy spirit is poured out upon 120-Christian disciples on the day of Pentecost 33 A.D.(J), in fulfillment of the prophecy at Joel 2:28, 29.  Maria Magdalena, the wife of Jesus, escapes to present day Southern France with family and friends.
36: Roman centurion Cornilus, and members of his household are baptized. End of the 70-weeks of years as prophesied at Daniel 9:1-27
37: Tiberius Caesar dies in the latter half of March, 37 A.D.(J) The historian Tacitus refers to him as "one of studied dissimulation and hypocrisy from the beginning." He is remembered as a "contemptible person." Tiberius is succeeded by Gaius Caesar also known as Caligula.
37-41: Caesar Gaius (Galigula) rules the Roman Empire
41-54: Caesar Claudius, uncle of galicula, rules the Roman Empire
41: Caligula, or Gaius is succeeded by his uncle, Claudius in the year 41 AD, (41-54 AD) Claudius saw to the further development of the empire along the lines that Augustus had in mind. Says one authority: "Client-states were absorbed, southern Britain was conquered, the Romanization of the West received powerful impulse, public works were executed in Rome and Italy, and the organization of the imperial bureaucracy made rapid strides." (See The Encyclopedia Britannica, Volume 23, pg. 651b.) Says a history: "An important extension of the state was made under Claudius, who sent a successful expedition into Britain in 43 AD, and added to the southern portion of the island as the province of Britannia. Later the British frontier was pushed further northward and secured by a line of defenses.
41: The gospel of Matthew is written
43: Romans conquer London.
50: Paul's first letter to the Thessalonian Christians is written.
51: Paul's second letter to the Thessalonian Christians is written.
50-52: Paul's letter to the Galatian Christians is written
54: Claudius, is killed when Agrippina, his wife poisons him. Emperor Nero succeeds him.
54-68: Caesar Nero rules the Roman Empire.
55: Paul's first & second letters to the Corinthian Christians are written.
56: Paul's letter to the Roman Christians is written
56-58: The gospel of Luke is written.
59: Nero, murders his mother, Agrippina
60: Dioscorides of Greece founded the science of pharmacology by making written descriptions of over six hundred species of plants and their medicinal properties.
60-61: Paul's letters to the Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians & Philemon are written.
60-65:The gospel of Mark is written.
61: The book of Acts of the Apostles is written by Luke & Paul's letter to the Hebrews is written
61-64: Paul's first letter to Timothy & his letter to Titus are written.
62: The letter of James is written
62: Nero, murders his wife, Octavia, and marries Popaea Sabina.
62-64: Peter's first letter is written in the city of Babylon.
64: Peter's second letter is written in the city of Babylon.
64: Great fire of Rome, rumored that Nero started the fire, in order to squelch the rumors Nero blames the fire on the Christians. Persecution of Christians became popular, and the first century Christians were used in gladiatorial events as well as entertainment for the Coliseum events when they were thrown to wild animals to be killed.
65: Paul's second letter to Timothy & the letter to Jude are written.
66: Roman General Cestius Gallus surrounds Jerusalem with soldiers and even undermines the temple wall, then for some reason suddenly departs. This allows faithful Christians to flee to the mountains, fulfillment of prophecy by Jesus Christ at Luke 21:20
66: Masada, is captured by Judean Zealots or "dagger men." The "dagger men" were members of a fanatical political Jewish faction existing in the first century A.D.(J) that engaged in organized political killings. When the Jews rioted against Paul at Jerusalem during his last visit there, the military commander Claudius Lysias suspected the apostle of being the Egyptian who had previously stirred up sedition and had led the 4,000 "dagger men" into the wilderness.
67: Peter and Paul are killed in Coliseum.
68: Nero commits suicide.
68-69: Caesar Galba rules the Roman Empire
69: Caesar Otho rules the Roman Empire
69: Caesar Vitellius rules the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
Caesar Vespasian rules the Roman Empire.  Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate while he was in Egypt in December of 69 (the Egyptians had declared him emperor already in June of 69.  In the short-term, administration of the empire was given to Mucianus who was aided by Vespasian's son, Domitian. Mucianus started off Vespasian's rule with tax reform that was to restore the empire's finances. After Vespasian arrived in Rome in mid-70.  Vespasian and Mucianus renewed old taxes and instituted new ones, increased the tribute of the provinces, and kept a watchful eye upon the treasury officials. The Latin proverb "Pecunia non olet" ("Money does not smell") may have been created when he had introduced a urine tax on public toilets.

By his own example of simplicity of life Caesar Vespasian caused something of a scandal when it was made known he took his own boots off — he initiated a marked improvement in the general tone of society in many respects.  Vepasian reformed the Roman state  not only through his own work ethic, but also through the insistence that those who served him could actually do their job.  As experienced man, he gave little credence to hype, and enormous weight to actual accomplishment.

President Barack Obama has now  a short time golden opportunity to capture into his cabinet the wisdom of Caesar Vespasian.  It is the same simple wisdom that Genghis Khan perfected to build the largest empire ever created on earth some 1,100 years later.

70: Rome conquers Wien (Vindobona), Austria.
70: Roman General Titus returns to Jerusalem and lays siege with pointed stakes, 1,100,000 Jews perish, 97,000 are taken captive, this is in fulfillment of the prophecy given by Jesus Christ at Luke 19:44. Zealots, or "dagger men" take refuge at Masada.
73: Masada, Rome sends a force of 10,000 troops to take Masada from the Zealots, including provisions for a very long siege (a Roman legion is usually 6,000 troops). The Roman forces build a huge earth ramp to the summit in order to assault the Masada fortress. The Zealots, realizing that their defeat is imminent, their leader, Eleazar Ben Yair, orders that the Zealots are to die. Ten men are appointed to kill the others, then one of the remaining ten men, after which he will commit suicide.
79-81: Caesar Titus, the eldest son of Vespasian rules the Roman Empire
79: August 24th, Mount Vesuvius a volcano in southern Italy, near the shore of the Bay of Naples and the city of Naples. It is the only active volcano on the European mainland. A solitary mountain rising from the plain of Campania, Erupts burying the prosperous Roman cities of Pompey, Herculaneum and Stabiae with volcanic ash rain and mud killing about 2000 of the three cities inhabitants.
81-96: Caesar Domitian, the son of Vespasian rules the Roman Empire
96: A Revelation is given to the apostle John by the resurrected Jesus and written down while he is on the penal Isle of Patmos.
96-98: Caesar Nerva rules the Roman Empire
98: The gospel of John, the letters of 1-John, 2-John & 3-John are written.
98: Emperor Trajan, ambitious to build a great oriental empire, entered upon a war of aggression in which he defeated the Parthians in Persia and added Armenia, Mesopotamia and Assyria to the empire as provinces. This represents the expansion of Rome to its greatest extent, but these conquests by Trajan in the east were abandoned by his successor.
98-117: Caesar Trajan rules the Roman Empire.  The Empire reaches it's peak in size.
100: APOSTASY firmly established at the death of the last apostle (John). "Man of Lawlessness" is revealed in fulfillment of 2-Thess. 2:3 & 2:7 . Christian Greek Scriptures completed c. 98 AD, with the writing of the Gospel John
101-109: Pope Evaristus, apostasy from the true teachings of Christ Jesus is evident when men begin using the title of pope. Evaristus rules the pagan "church" in Rome.
105: Paper-making is refined by the Chinese eunuch Cai Lun (Tsai Lun), 55, who receives official praise from the emperor for his methods of making paper from tree bark, hemp, remnant rags and fishnets. The Chinese have been making crude paper for at least 2 centuries, but Cai Lun's paper provides a far superior writing surface than pure silk and is much less costly to produce. His apprentice Zo Po (Tso Po) will make further improvements to the process, and use of paper will spread quickly throughout China. Silk, bamboo, and wooden slips will remain the usual materials for books and scrolls in most of the world for another 2 centuries, and paper will remain a Chinese secret for 500 years; it will not be made in Korea until about 600 and not in Japan until at least 610
109-116: Pope Alexander, rules the pagan "church" in Rome.
161-128: Pope Sixtus, rules the pagan "church" in Rome.
117-138: Caesar Hadrianus rules the Roman Empire, a great architect and moved his summer home up to the hills outside the Rome to be in cooler air during summers.
117: Emperor Hadrian, Emperor of the Roman Empire builds a wall across Rome's northernmost boundry in Britain which came to be known as "Hadrian's Wall."
118: Rome has a population over 1 million.
125: Rylands Papyrus 457 (P52), are fragments of the Gospel John
125-136: Pope Telesphorus, rules the pagan "church" in Rome, he is murdered while in office.
130-170: Gospel of Judas was found in 1970's in a cavern near El Minya, Egypt.  The document circulated for years among antiquities dealers in Egypt, then Europe and finally in the United States. It moldered in a safe-deposit box at a bank in Hicksville, N. Y., for 16 years before being bought in 2000 by a Zurich dealer, Frieda Nussberger-Tchacos. The manuscript was given the name Codex Tchacos.   The 26-page Judas text is said to be a copy in Coptic, made around A. D. 300, of the original Gospel of Judas, written in Greek the century before. This early Christian manuscript, including the only known text of what is known as the Gospel of Judas. The text gives new insights into the relationship of Jesus and the disciple who betrayed him.  In this version, Jesus asked Judas, as a close friend, to sell him out to the authorities, telling Judas he will "exceed" the other disciples by doing so.  The Gnostics' beliefs were often viewed by bishops and early church leaders as unorthodox, and they were frequently denounced as heretics.  As the findings have trickled down to churches and universities, they have produced a new generation of Christians who now regard the Bible not as the literal word of God, but as a product of historical and political forces that determined which texts should be included in the canon, and which edited out.  For that reason, the discoveries have proved deeply troubling for many believers. The Gospel of Judas portrays Judas Iscariot not as a betrayer of Jesus, but as his most favored disciple and willing collaborator.  Scholars say that they have long been on the lookout for the Gospel of Judas because of a reference to what was probably an early version of it in a text called Against Heresies, written by Irenaeus, the bishop of Lyons, about the year 180.  Irenaeus was a hunter of heretics, and no friend of the Gnostics. He wrote, "They produce a fictitious history of this kind, which they style the Gospel of Judas."
132-135: Jews rebelled in Jerusalem, diaspora begins, i.e. they left Jerusalem and the land of Israel for good to settle in distant lands to form there small Jewish colonies.
138-161: Caesar Antonius Pius rules the Roman Empire
138-142: Pope Hyginus, rules the pagan "church" in Rome.
142-155: Pope Pius I, rules the pagan "church" in Rome.
150-170: Tatian, a student of the early Christian, Justin Martyr, produces the "Diatessaron," a composite account of Jesus' life, compiled from the same four Gospels found in our present-day Bibles.
155-166: Pope Anicetus, rules the pagan "church" in Rome.
161-180: Caesar Marcus Aurelius rules the Roman Empire
166-174: Pope Soter, rules the pagan "church" in Rome
170: The earliest known catalog of the "New Testament" books, called the "Muratorian Fragment," was produced, it lists most of the Christian Greek Scriptures
174-189: Pope Eleutherius, rules the pagan "church" in Rome.
180-284: Military Rule in Rome- military commanders as self appointed Rulers and Caesars.
180-192: Caesar Commodus rules the Roman Empire (176-180?)
189-198: Pope Victor, rules the pagan "church" in Rome.
192-193: Caesar Pertinax rules the Roman Empire
193-211: Caesar Septimus Severus rules the Roman Empire
193: Septimius Severus while emperor builds a Roman wall in Britain.
198-217: Caesar Caracalla rules the Roman Empire (198-211?)
198-217: Pope Zephyrinus, rules the pagan "church" in Rome
200-400: Finland, Late Roman Iron Age.
217-218: Caesar Macrius rules the Roman Empire
217-222: Pope Callistus I, rules the pagan "church" in Rome.
218-222: Caesar Elagabalus rules the Roman Empire
220-280: Three Kingdoms  in China,    220-265 Wei,; 221-263 -- Shu ; 229-280 -- Wu
222-230: Pope Urban I, rules pagan "church" in Rome.
222-235: Caesar Alexander Severus rules the Roman Empir
230-236: Pope Pontian rules the pagan "church" in Rome.
235-238: Caesar Maximus Thrax rules the Roman Empire
236-237: Pope Anterus, rules the pagan "church" in Rome.
236-238: Maximus, becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire. Maximus deports Popes Pontian and Hippolytus to Sardina for causing discord within the Roman Empire, they soon die in Sardinia
237-250: Pope Fabian, rules the pagan "church" in Rome.
238-244: Caesars Gordian, I, II and III rule the Roman Empire
238-244: Gordian I & II, Balbinus, Pupienus, Gordian III become Emperors of the Roman Empire.
244-249: Caesars Philip, the Arabian and others rule the Roman Empire
249-251: Caesars Decius rule the Roman Empire
251-268: Caesar Gallienus and others rule the Roman Empire
251-253: Pope Cornelius, rules the pagan "church" in Rom
253-254: Pope Lucius I, rules the pagan "church" in Rome.
254-257: Pope Steven I, rules the pagan "church" in Rome.
257-258: Pope Sixtus II, rules the pagan "church" in Rome, he is murdered while in office.
257: Visigoths and Ostrogoths invade the Black Sea area. The Goths were an ancient Teutonic people, (German), who in the 3rd to the 6th century were an important power in the Roman world. The Goths were the first Germanic peoples to become nominal "Christians". Franks invade Spain. The Franks were a group of Germanic tribes that, about the 3rd century, dwelt along the middle and lower Rhine River.
260-268: Gallienus Emperor of the Roman Empire
260-268: Pope Dionysius, rules the pagan "church" in Rome.
265-316: Western Jin Dynasty in China,
268: Goths, sack Athens, Sparta and Corinth
268-270: Caesar Claudius II rules the Roman Empire
269-274: Pope Felix I, rules the pagan "church" in Rome.
269: Zenobia of Palmyra, (Syria) seizes opportunity to expand her power and throne when a pretender disputing Roman rulership appeared in Egypt. Zenobia's army marched into Egypt, crushed the rebel and took possession of the country, proclaiming herself queen of Egypt. Her kingdom now stretched from the river Nile to the river Euphrates. At this point she came to occupy the position of the KING OF THE SOUTH spoken about in the book of Daniel, (Daniel 11:25, 26). She also conquered most of Asia Minor.
270-275: Caesar Aurelian and others rule the Roman Empire
270: Roman Emperor Aurelian, now representing the KING OF THE NORTH of Daniel's prophecy, Aurelian "aroused his power and his heart against the king of the south," represented by Zenobia. (Daniel 11:25a) Aurelian dispatched some of his forces directly to Egypt and led his main army eastward through Asia Minor. The KING OF THE SOUTH or the ruling entity headed by Zenobia--"excited himself" for warfare against Aurilian "with an exceedingly great and mighty military force" under two generals, Zabdas and Zabbai. (Daniel 11:25b) Aurelian conquered Egypt, then launched an expedition into Asia Minor and Syria. Zenobia was defeated at Emesa (now Homs), she retreated to Palmyra.
272-274: Palmyrenes surrender their city. Aurelian, though he dealt magnanimously with the inhabitants, collected an immense quantity of plunder, including the idol from the Temple of the Sun, and departed for Rome. The Roman emperor spared Zenobia, making her the prize feature of his triumphal procession through Rome in 274 A.D.(J)
275-276: Caesar Tacitus rules the Roman Empire
275-283: Pope Eutychian, rules the pagan "church" in Rome
276-282: Caesar Marcus Aurelius Probus rules the Roman Empire
282-283: Caesar Carus rules the Roman Empire
283-284: Caesar Carinus and Numerian rule the Roman Empire - he is the last military Emperor of Rome
283-296: Pope Gaius, rules the pagan "church" in Rome.
284-305: Caesar Diocletian rules the Roman Empire, the greatness of the Rome ends.
286-305: Caesar Maximian rules the Roman Empire
293-311: Caesar Galerius rules the Roman Empire
296-304: Pope Marcellinnus, rules the pagan "church in Rome, offering pagan sacrifices for Emperor Diocletian.
300: One of the first encyclopedias of alchemy was written
303: Diocletian, decrees that Christian meeting places be razed and their "Scriptures be consumed with fire."
305-307: Caesar Flavius Severus rules the Roman Empire
306-308: Pope Marcellus I, rules the pagan "church" in Rome. Emperor Maxentius exiles him from Rome for disturbing the peace.
306-312:Maxentius, Emperor of the Roman Empire?
306-337: Caesar Constantine I rules the Roman Empire, formalized the Christian faith as the first Bible
308-324: Caesar Licinus rules the Roman Empire
310: Pope Eusebius is deported to Sicily by Roman Emperor Maxentius.
311-314: Pope Miltiades, rules over the pagan "church" in Rome. Constantine gives him Fausta's Palace as a "Papal" residence.
314-335: Pope Sylvester I, rules over the pagan "church" in Rome.
317-420: Eastern Jin Dynasty in China, 
324-337: Constantine the Great, Pontifex Maximus, Emperor of Rome, saw a great opportunity to unite and strengthen the whole Roman Empire and it's power structures by replacing the various Roman Gods with a "single" God as was provided by the early Christianity.  He directed the consolidation of the Christian faith by adoption of it's "pagan" Trinity Doctrine to become the basic pillar in the Christianity and the Catholic Church.  In 325, he calls more than 250 Bishops to work in Nicaea, Asia Minor, to adopt the Holy Trinity: The Father, The Son and The Holy Spirit.  Those who disagreed were exiled.  He then directs the compilation of the early version of the present day Bible from various apostolic and other scriptures that were available in the Roman Emperor's domain or were presented to him.   He kept his own faith to the Roman Gods until baptized against his will on his death bed after he was incapacitated to physically resist this ceremony.
330: May 11th., Emperor Constantine moved his imperial residence from Rome to Byzantium, he founded the new imperial capital and dedicated it as New Rome or Constantinople. But there was still only one Roman Empire.
337: "Saint" Nina (with the exiles) convert the people of Georgia to "Orthodox Christianity" and begins thus the early foundations of the Eastern Roman Empire and the religious divisions among apostate religions.
336-337: Pope Mark, rules the new Catholic Church in Rome, as crystallized by the Roman Emperor, Constantine the Great, Pontifex Maximus.
337-340: Caesar Constantine II rules the Roman Empire
337-350: Caesar Constans rules the Roman Empire
337-352: Pope Julius I, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
337-361: Caesar Constantius II rules the Roman Empire
352-366: Pope Liberius, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
361-363: Caesar Julian rules the Roman Empire
363-364: Caesar Jovian rules the Roman Empire
364-375: Caesar Valentinian rules the Roman Empire
364-375: Caesar Valens rules the Roman Empire
366-384: Pope Damasus I succeeded Liberius as bishop of Rome, he was opposed by Ursicinus, who claimed the election, and in their disgraceful strifes many people were murdered ... The man [Pope Damasus I] that came into the bishopric of Rome, as a thief and a robber, over dead bodies of above a hundred of his opponents, could not hesitate as to the election he should make. The results shows that he acted in character, that, in assuming the Pagan title of Pontifex, he had set himself at whatever sacrifice of truth to justify his claims to that title in the eyes of the Pagans, as the legitimate representative of their long line of pontiffs.
367-383: Caesar Gratian rules the Roman Empire
375-393: Caesar Valentinian II rules the Roman Empire
378: Emperor Gratian conferred upon [ Damasus I ], the right to pass judgment upon those clergymen of the other party who had been expelled from Rome, and at the request of a Roman synod held the same year, instructed the secular authorities to give him the necessary support.  The Pope, as he is now, was at the close of the fourth century, the only representative of Belshazzar, or Nimrod, on the earth, for the Pagans manifestly accepted him as such.
379-395: Caesar Theodosius I rules the Roman Empire
382-405: Pope Damasus I commissions his secretary, Jerome, to prepare an authoritative Latin Bible. Jerome completed his work circa 405, Jerome's work became known as the Vulgate, or common version, rather than using the Greek Septuagint version which proved to have many errors, (despite many criticisms from the church, because of fears that not using the Greek Septuagint as the basis for translation would further divide the western church from the Greek eastern church), however, Jerome translated from the inspired Hebrew manuscripts available to him at that time, and it benefited people for centuries.
384-399: Pope Siricius, rules the Catholic church in Rome, he criticizes the works of Jerome.
385-388: Caesar Maximus rules the Roman Empire
392-394: Caesar Eugenius rules the Roman Empire
395: January 17th., at the death of Roman Emperor Theodosius, the Roman Empire was divided between his sons Honorius, (who rules Rome from 395 to 423, receiving the western section) and Arcadius receiving the eastern section, with its capital at Constantinople. Egypt fell to the lot of Constantinople and became a province of the eastern division of the Roman Empire.
395-423: Caesar Honorius rules the Roman Empire
399-401: Pope Anastasius I, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
400-575: Finland, Migration Period
401: The Visigoths, an ancient Germanic people, invade Italy.
401-417: Pope "Innocent" I, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
404: The last known gladiatorial competition in Rome takes place
406: Attila the Hun is born.
406: Throughout the 4th century small groups of Germans had been sailing in Gaul with the permission of the Roman authorities. In 406 this movement became an invasion when the Vandals, Suevi, and Alans broke through the frontier, moved rapidly across Gaul on a southwesterly course, and crossed into Spain.
408: British Monarchy, (Anglo-Saxon) In the Dark Ages during the fifth and sixth centuries, communities of peoples in Britain inhabited homelands with ill-defined borders. Such communities were organized and led by chieftains or kings. The rise of such community kingdoms was shaped by the final withdrawal of the Roman legions from the provinces of Britannia in around 408, which led to the disintegration of Roman rule. As a result, these small kingdoms were left to preserve their own order and deal with invaders and irresistible waves of migrant peoples such as the Picts from beyond Hadrian's Wall, the Scots from Ireland (the Deisi from south-east Ireland moved into West Wales, and other Gaelic-speaking Scots, the Dalriada, established a kingdom of communities along the Scottish coast and Western Isles together with their Irish homeland), and various Germanic tribes from the continent.
410:The Visigoths, an ancient Germanic people, sack Rome under King Alaric.
412: The Visigoths, an ancient Germanic people, freely entered southern Gaul from Italy.
416: The Visigoths, an ancient Germanic people, take Spain.
416: Krakatoa, Volcano erupts
417-418: Pope Zosimus, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
418: The Franks, a group of Germanic tribes, that during the 3rd century AD dwelt along the lower and middle Rhine River, take Gaul, the territory that is now France.
418-422: Pope Boniface I, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
420-588: Southern and Northern Dynasties in China,  Southern Dynasties: 420-478 -- Song; 479-501 -- Qi ; 502-556 -- Liang ; 557-588 -- Chen; Northern Dynasties:: 386-533 -- Northern Wei ; 534-549 -- Eastern Wei ; 535-557 -- Western Wei ; 550-577 -- Northern Qi  ; 557-588 -- Northern Zhou
422-432: Pope Celestine I, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
425-455: Caesar Valentinian III rules the Roman Empire
432-440: Pope Sixtus III, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
Roman Empire
Attila (406-453)
, also known as Attila the Hun or the Scourge of God, was the king of the Huns from 434 until his death 453. He was leader of the Hunnic Empire which stretched from Germany to the Ural River and from the Danube to the Baltic Sea. During his rule he was one of the most fearsome of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires' enemies: he invaded the Balkans twice, he marched through Gaul (France) as far as Orleans before being defeated at the Battle of Chalons; and he drove the Western emperor Valentinian III from his capital at Ravenna in 452. He reached both Constantinople and Rome but refrained from attacking either city.

In much of Western Europe, he is remembered as the epitome of cruelty and rapacity. In contrast, some histories lionize him as a great and noble king in some Nordic stories.

The reason for their huge success on battlefield in the West was the short but very powerful composite Mongol Bow while the rest of the armies used a long cumbersome bow for the equal killing power. This bow gave Huns a superior military capability of fast movement and the ability to kill opponents almost at will from distance while riding a horse.   This combination was unstoppable and at the end it even destroyed the will and faith of the so far invincible Roman Army. 

The battle of Chalons was a loss to Attila but he managed to separate from the battle and withdraw in an orderly way.  The Romans made either a strategic error by not finishing them all or they were just equally exhausted from the battle.

The origin of the Huns has been the subject of debate for centuries; however it can be said with general agreement that they were a confederation of Central Asian and European tribes, many of them horse nomads. Many experts think they were a Turkic people, descended from the warrior Xiongnu (or Hsiung-nu) tribes that menaced China as early as the 5th century BC, or perhaps even much earlier. The first emperor of China, Shi Huangdi, built part of the Great Wall to keep the Xiongnu out.  Their Mongol origin is supported by their tactics on the battlefield and especially their "high tech" composite bow all well suited to open plains and fast movements of the troops.

The continuing struggle with the further uniting China gave them reason to unite themselves or face losing their independence.  They saw the weak and poorly organized resistance in the West and were bound to sooner or later discover the far away riches of the Western lands that were there waiting for someone to take them.  Battle hardened with the continuous warfare with the Chinese Emperors made it all a natural consequence.

The Xiongnu (Chinese匈奴pinyinXiōngnúWade-Giles: Hsiung-nu); were a nomadic people from Central Asia, generally based in present day Mongolia. From the 3rd century BC on they controlled a vast steppe empire extending west as far as the Caucasus Mountains.  They were active in the areas of southern Siberia, western Manchuria and the modern Chinese provinces of Inner Mongolia, Gansu, and Xinjiang. Relations between the Han Chinese and the Xiongnu were complicated and included military conflict, exchanges of tribute and trade, and marriage treaties.

The bulk of information on the Xiongnu comes from Chinese sources. What little is known of their titles and names comes from transliterations of Chinese character phoneticizations of their language. Only about 20 Xiongnu words belonging to the Altaic languages are known, and only a single Xiongnu sentence survives from the Chinese documents.

440-461: Pope Leo I, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
440: The Bourguignons settled in eastern Gaul. In the northwest of Gaul, Celtic refugees from the British Isles, which had also been invaded by Germanic tribes, sought and gained refuge and gave their name to the region of Bretagne.
447-458: Merovingians, Gaul, king Merovech (or Merowig), Frankish king begins the Merovingian dynasty rules Gaul a territory that would become part of modern day France. The Merovingians were a dynasty of Frankish kings who ruled a frequently fluctuating area in parts of present-day France and Germany from the 5th to the 8th century AD. The Merovingian dynasty owes its name to Merovech (sometimes Latinized as Meroveus or Merovius), leader of the Salian Franks. The legend tells that the Merovingian bloodline came from sea, mer, and they had superior military powers.
451: Attila: the Hun is defeated only after Germans, Romans, and Gauls unite to finally defeat this Mongol leader but he still gets away with enough troops.
451: (Adherents) Coptic Orthodox Church formed

452: Attila drove the western emperor Valentinian III from his capital at Ravenna.  When Attila was approaching Rome, Pope Leo I came to meet him and was able to convince him not to invade the City.  Some claim the divine power to have intervened through Pope but the likely reason was the influenza ravaging his men and he concluded that the invasion was not wise and had to be postponed to another year.

453: Attila dies during his yet another wedding night - poisoned or as a result from overdrinking.  Attila had not prepared his sons properly for succession (over 60 of them) and they end up fighting each others and with that destroying the remaining might of Attila's already weakened empire.  The Huns as an Empire is no more important. 
455: Vandals, an ancient Germanic tribe of Jutland [now in Denmark], who migrated to the valley of the Odra [Oder] River about the 5th century A.D.(J), sack Rome.
457-474: Pope Leo I, becomes the Emperor of the remaining Eastern Roman Empire.
458-482: Merovingians, Gaul, king Childeric I, Frankish king of the Merovingian dynasty rules Gaul a territory that is now a part of modern day France. The details concerning the rulers of France during this period are incomplete.  Achieved victories against the Visigoths, Saxons and Alamanni.
461-468: Pope Hilarus, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
468-483: Pope Simplicius, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
475-476: Official end of the Western Roman Empire, when Romulus Augustulus the last Western Roman emperor is deposed by the German Odoacer.

480-540: St. Benedict, a Roman aristocrat created the seeds for a new phenomenon, the Monastery system. and later on the Benedictine order.   Benedict was a deeply religious Roma that could no more take the lavish parties, corruption, drinking and sex that was now commonplace throughout the whole leadership in the Rome and to some extent the Church. 

He moved outside the city to live as a hermit in an inaccessible mountain cave where he refused to take more than one meal a day, lowered down to him in a basket.   He devoted his life for the cleanest possible orthodox faith to scriptures and God.

It did not take long than others joined with him in his cave.  The few people grew soon into a movement that took off an unexpected way.   He wrote the Rule, a brief document that gives a crystallised description of a way of life for a monk as his follower.  Later on he also founded the two Monasteries of Subiaco and Monte Cassino.   His eccentricity in cave living created in no time at all one of the longest living and most successful business empires ever devised.  

The power of a prayer especially that given by a holy man was sought after and soon highly priced by the sinners, as it was thought to help them to pass the gates to the heavens after their death.  The bigger the sin the more powerful prayer was needed and Rome alone was now full of enormously wealthy sinners.  These had no difficulty in taking the highest quality insurance in existence,  just in case that the afterlife would exist.   And who would be more worthy for doing the prayers for them than a holy man living as a hermit and devoting his whole life to serving the God and his followers?  Soon more Monasteries were needed around Europe to provide forgiveness for the wealthy and fortunate for the Church, this did not stop the sinners from redoing them again.  

The alliance with the Church the Monasteries soon brought in the wealth rivaling that of the richest Kings and States.   This proved to be fatal for the Church as it was sooner or later bound to try its newly won wealth to overthrow some of its earthly opponents.   The wealth could buy the equal armies, but the intelligence in sinners never switched the side and with some initial success the Church had not a change in this power game.   

However, the Monastery system flourished separately and expanded rapidly over the Southern and Central Europe including the British Islands.  These Monasteries were  also essential in preserving the historical documents as the monks copied and stored the old scriptures through the passing centuries until Gutenberg (1400-1468) invented the printing press.  The Monastery order gets its first  damaging blow about a millennium later when Martin Luther nails his 95 theses on the Wittenburg Castle Church Door in October 31, 1517

482-511 Merovingians, Childeric's son Clovis I (in German, Chlodwig) united most of Gaul north of the Loire around 486. His career focused largely on forging the Salian Franks on the northern Rhine River and the Repuarian Franks on the lower Rhine into a single dominion. He began with a victory in 486 over Syargrius, the last Roman governor in northern Gaul. By 493, when he married the Bourguignon princess Clotilda, Clovis had defeated many petty princes whose territories had surrounded his capital at Soissons. He next came into conflict in 496, Battle of Tolbiac, with the confederation of Germanic tribes known as the Alamanni, who inhabited land east of his domains. According to legend, it was only by invoking the god of his "Christian" wife, Clotilda, that he defeated his enemy.  Clotilda was almost certainly instrumental in Clovis's "conversion" to "Christianity". He  defeated the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse in the Battle of Vouillé in 507.  On his death, Clovis partitioned his kingdom among his four sons, according to Frankish custom. Over the next two centuries, this tradition would continue. Even when multiple Merovingian kings ruled, the kingdom - not unlike the late Roman Empire - was conceived of as a single realm ruled collectively by several kings and the turn of events could result in the reunification of the whole realm under a single king. Leadership among the early Merovingians was based on mythical descent and alleged divine patronage, expressed in terms of continued military success. At the outset of Merovingian dynasty, the nobles banished Childeric, the father of Clovis, and acclaimed instead a Roman dux, Aegidius. After Aegidius had been assassinated, Childeric was recalled from his retirement among the Thuringians (Gregory of Tours). The Merovingian king was the master of the booty of war, both movable and in lands and their folk, and he was in charge of the redistribution of conquered wealth among the first of his followers. "When he died his property was divided equally among his heirs as though it were private property: the kingdom was a form of patrimony".  The kings appointed magnates to be comites or counts, charging them with defense, administration, and the judgement of disputes. This happened against the backdrop of the collapse of the centralized Roman system of administration and taxation and the disappearance of the old civil service structure, as the Franks took over administration from the Romans, gradually penetrating into thoroughly Romanized parts of the west and south of Gaul.
483-492: Pope Felix III, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
491-518: Anastasius I, is Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.
492-496: Pope Gelasius I, rules the Catholic church in Rome
496: The Emergence of France. In the last quarter of the 5th century, as Roman imperial authority collapsed in the West, Gaul was conquered by another Germanic tribe, the Salian Franks. Their leader Clovis was a tough warrior, unhesitatingly violent and, when he saw fit, treacherous. Married to a "Christian" Bourguignon princess, he became a "nominal Christian" himself in 496. By adopting the Catholic form of "Christianity" favored by the Gallo-Romans instead of the Arian "Christianity" espoused by the Visigoths, he was able to strengthen his hold over the country. Clovis's Merovingian dynasty ruled until 751. According to Frankish custom all the king's possessions, including his royal title, were divided among his sons. Because of this practice, Merovingian France was beset by continual disunity and civil war in the 6th century
496-498: Pope Anastasius II, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
498-514: Pope Symmachus, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
514-523: Pope Hormisdas, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
511-558: France, king Childebert I, Frankish king of the Merovingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France. The details concerning the rulership of France during this period are incomplete.
523-526: Pope John I, rules the Catholic church in Rome, he is murdered while in office.
518-527: Justin I, Emperor of the Eastern Roman empire in Byzantium.
526-530: Pope Felix IV, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
527-565: Justinian the Great, Byzantine Emperor.
530-532: Pope Boniface II, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
532-535: Pope John II, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
533: North Africa, captured by Belisarius from vandals, becomes Byzantine province.
534-870: Malta, becomes Byzantine province.
535-536: Pope Agapitus I, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
535-536: Pope Silverius, rules the Catholic church in Rome, he is murdered while in office.
537-555: Pope Vigilius, involved in the murder of Silverius in a conspiracy with Justinian and Theodora is excommunicated by North African Bishops in 550, He continues to rule the Catholic church in Rome.
539-562: War rages between the Byzantine Empire and Persia.
548: Tree rings around the world indicate of a short cold time period lasting for a few years.  This indicates either a powerful volcano or a large meteorite hitting earth
550: A group of Jews known as the Masoretes developed a systematic copying method for preserving the Hebrew Scripture text. This involved counting the lines and even the individual letters, noting variations among manuscripts, all in an effort to preserve the authentic text. A comparison of modern Masoretic text with the Dead Sea Scrolls, written between 250 BC & 50 BC, shows no doctrinal changes in over 1,000 years. This Masoretic Text preparation continued to a. 950 AD
556-561: Pope Pelagius I, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
558-562: Merovingians, France, king Clotaire I, Frankish king of the Merovingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France. The Franks, a Germanic tribe, the kings were descendants of the chief of the Salian Franks, Merovech or Merowig, from whom the dynasty's name derived. The details concerning the rulership of France during this period are incomplete.  The various branches of the Merovingian house engaged in an intermittent and bloody war over the succession to the kingship, which ended with the family's effective rule notably diminished, though their increasingly token presence was required to legitimate any action.
561-574: Pope John III, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
562-566: France, king Caribert, Frankish king of the Merovingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France. The details concerning the rulership of France during this period are incomplete.
565-578: Justin II, Byzantine Emperor.
566-584: Merovingians, France, king Chilperic, Frankish king of the Merovingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France. Brunhild (550?-613), queen of the Frankish kingdom known as Austrasia (in present-day northeastern France and southwestern Germany), the daughter of Athanagild (reigned 554-567), king of the Visigoths in Spain. Brunhild was married to Sigebert I, the Merovingian king of Austrasia. Her sister Galswintha married Sigebert's brother Chilperic, ruler of the neighboring Frankish kingdom of Neustria. Fredegund, Chilperic's former concubine, caused Galswintha to be murdered; she then married Chilperic. Brunhild determined to avenge herself on Fredegund, and the annuls of the next half century in Gaul are filled with the bloody deeds provoked by the enmity of these (Brunhild and Fredegund) two women. Brunhild and her husband were successful until Sigebert was murdered in 575 at the instigation of Fredegund. Brunhild herself was captured by Chilperic, but she escaped, returned to Austrasia.

570-633: Prophet Mohammed who established Islam was born in 570 AD at Mecca, the capital of Arabia and the sacred city is situated in the district of Hijaz about 21°30' N. latitude and 40°20' E. longitude, some seventy miles east of the Red Sea. It lies in a sandy valley surrounded by rocky hills from two hundred to five hundred feet in height, barren and destitute of vegetation. 

Mohammed's father was Abdallah, of the family of Hashim, who died soon after his son's birth. At the age of six the boy lost his mother and was thereafter taken care of by his uncle Abu-Talib. He spent his early life as a shepherd and an attendant of caravans, and at the age of twenty-five married a rich widow, Khadeejah, fifteen years his senior. She bore him six children, all of whom died very young except Fatima, his beloved daughter.

On his commercial journeys to Syria and Palestine he became acquainted with Jews and Christians, and acquired knowledge of their religion and traditions. He was a man of retiring disposition, addicted to prayer and fasting, and was subject to epileptic fits.

In his fortieth year (A.D. 612), he claimed to have received a call from the Angel Gabriel, and thus began his active career as the prophet of Allah and the apostle of Arabia. His converts were about forty in all, including his wife, his daughter, his father-in-law Abu Bakr, his adopted son Ali Omar, and his slave Zayd.  By his preaching and his attack on heathenism, Mohammed provoked persecution which drove him from Mecca to Medina in 622, the year of the Hejira (Flight) and the beginning of the Mohammedan Era. At Medina he was recognized as the prophet of God, and his followers increased. He took the field against his enemies, conquered several Arabian, Jewish and Christian tribes, entered Mecca in triumph in 630, demolished the idols of the Kaaba, became master of Arabia, and finally united all the tribes under one emblem and one religion.  In 632 he made his last pilgrimage to Mecca at the head of forty thousand followers, and soon after his return died of a violent fever in the sixty-third year of his age, the eleventh of the Hejira, and the year 633 of the Christian era.

572-628: War rages between the Byzantine Empire and Persia.
575-579: Pope Benedict I, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
575-800: Finland, Merovingian influence has arrived.
578-582: Tiberius II, Byzantine Emperor.
579-590: Pope Pelagius, rules the Catholic church in Rome, he dies of the plague.
581-617: Sui  Dynasty in China,
582-602: Maurice, Byzantine Emperor.
584-628: Merovingians, France, king Clotaire II, Frankish king of the Merovingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France. After the death of Clovis I in 511 the kingdom was divided among his four sons into Austrasia, Neustria, Bourgogne, and Aquitaine. The divisions were reunited under Clotaire II.
590-604: Pope Gregory I the Great, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
KHAZARS (known also as Chozars) in Byzantine writers, as Khazirs in Armenian and Khwalisses in Russian chronicles, and Ugri Bielii in Nestor, an ancient people who occupied a prominent place amongst the secondary powers of the Byzantine state-system. In the epic of Firdousi Khazar is the representative name for all the northern foes of Persia, and legendary invasions long before the Christian era are vaguely attributed to them. But the Khazars are an historic figure upon the borderland of Europe and Asia for at least 900 years (A.D. 190-1100). The epoch of their greatness is from A.D. 600 to 950. Their home was in the spurs of the Caucasus and along the shores of the Caspian - called by medieval Moslem geographers Bahr-al-Khazar ("sea of the Khazars"); their cities, all populous and civilized commercial centres, were Itil, the capital, upon the delta of the Volga, the "river of the Khazars," Semender (Tarkhu), the older capital, Khamlidje or Khalendsch, Belendscher, the outpost towards Armenia, and Sarkel on the Don. They were the Venetians of the Caspian and the Euxine, the organizers of the transit between the two basins, the universal carriers between East and West; and Itil was the meeting-place of the commerce of Persia, Byzantium, Armenia, Russia and the Bulgarians of the middle Volga. The tise of their dominion ebbed and flowed repeatedly, but the normal Khazari may be taken as the territory between the Caucasus, the Volga and the Don, with the outlying province of the Crimea, or Little Khazaria. The southern boundary never greatly altered; it did at times reach the Kur and the Aras, but on that side the Khazars were confronted by Byzantium and Persia, and were for the most part restrained within the passes of the Caucasus by the fortifications of Dariel. Amongst the nomadic Ugrians and agricultural Slays of the north their frontier fluctuated widely, and in its zenith Khazaria extended from the Dnieper to Bolgari upon the middle Volga, and along the eastern shore of the Caspian to Astarabad.

The origin of the Khazars has been much disputed, and they have been variously regarded as akin to the Georgians, Finno-Ugrians and Turks. This last view is perhaps the most probable. Their king Joseph, in answer to the inquiry of Hasdai Ibn Shaprut of Cordova (c. 958), stated that his people sprang from Thogarmah, grandson of Japhet, and the supposed ancestor of the other peoples of the Caucasus.

The Finno-Ugrian peoples are more likely the closest neighbors in the North as shown in the map on the left. The Veps, Mervans, Permians and Maris are more related to the Finnic peoples in the North who have always preferred their lifestyle and their ancient beliefs related to the birth of the Universe and all of it's inner workings.

The Arab geographers who knew the Khazars best connect them either with the Georgians (Ibn Athir) or with the Armenians (Dimishqi, ed. Mehren, p. 263); whilst Abmad ibn Fadlan, who passed through Khazaria on a mission from the Caliph Moqtadir (A.D. 925), positively asserts that the Khazar tongue differed not only from the Turkish, but from that of the bordering nations, which were Ugrian.

The Khazars were a semi-nomadic Turkic people who dominated the Pontic steppe and the North Caucasus from the 7th to the 10th century CE. The name 'Khazar'[1] seems to be tied to a Turkic verb form meaning "wandering". The origins of the Khazars are unclear. Following their conversion to Judaism the Khazars themselves traced their origins to Kozar, a son of Togarmah.

Scholars in the former USSR considered the Khazars to be an indigenous people of the North Caucasus. Some scholars, considered the Khazars to be connected with a Uyghur or Tiele confederation tribe called He'san in Chinese sources from the 7th-century. However, the Khazar language appears to have been an Oghuric tongue, similar to that spoken by the early Bulgars and corresponding to the modern day Chuvash dialects. Therefore, a Hunnish origin has also been postulated. Since the Turkic peoples were never ethnically homogeneous, these ideas need not be deemed mutually exclusive. It is likely that the Khazar nation was made up of tribes from various ethnic backgrounds, as steppe nations traditionally absorbed those they conquered. Their name is accordingly derived from Turkic *qaz-, meaning "to wander, flee."

Armenian chronicles contain references to the Khazars as early as the late second century. These are generally regarded as anachronisms, and most scholars believe that they actually refer to Sarmatians or Scythians.  Priscusrelates that one of the nations in the Hunnish confederacy was called Akatziroi. Their king was named Karadachor Karidachus. Some, going on the similarity between Akatziroi and "Ak-Khazar" (see below), have speculated that the Akatziroi were early proto-Khazars.

Dmitri Vasilyev of Astrakhan State University recently hypothesizedthat the Khazars moved in to the Pontic steppe region only in the late 500s, and originally lived in Transoxiana. According to Vasilyev, Khazar populations remained behind in Transoxiana under Pecheneg and Oghuz suzerainty, possibly remaining in contact with the main body of their people.

602-610: Phocas, kills Maurice, then suceeds him as new Byzantine Emperor.
604-606: Pope Sabinian, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
604-1,087: Christianity reached Roman Britain in the second-century AD. A number of Roman artefacts - pots, tiles and glass - have been found in excavations around St Paul’s, however no evidence has emerged that the site of St Paul’s, as once believed, was ever used for a Roman temple. The official withdrawal of Roman administration in 410 AD did not end Christian belief in England but it was to be almost two hundred years before St Paul’s Cathedral was founded. The two names most associated with the establishment of the first St Paul’s are Saint Mellitus and Saint Erkenwald. The former, a monk who arrived in Britain with Saint Augustine on a mission from Rome instigated by Pope Gregory the Great, founded St Paul’s in 604 AD. The latter was the Abbot of Chertsey whose consecration as Bishop of London in 675 AD, following the city’s brief return to paganism, confirmed the return of the Roman Church to London. The earliest Cathedral buildings were relatively short-lived structures, repeatedly damaged by fires and Viking attacks. It was the Cathedral begun in about 1087 AD by Bishop Maurice, Chaplain to William the Conqueror, which would provide the longest standing home for Christian worship on the site to date, surviving for almost six hundred years.
606-607: Pope Boniface III, rules the Catholic church in Rome
607-615: Pope Boniface IV, rules the Catholic church in Rome
610 (Adherents) Birth of Islam by Mohammad
613: The Kingdom of France was again unified under the rule of Clotaire II and Dagobert I. Thereafter it went into severe decline under a series of weak, incompetent kings. During this period power became concentrated in the hands of the mayors of the palace, royal officials who had charge of the king's estates. Struggles broke out among the mayors that were reminiscent of those among earlier kings. Late in the 7th century, one palace mayor in particular, Pepin of Herstal, a member of the Amulfung family of Austrasia (in eastern France and western Germany), achieved superiority over his rivals, successfully extending his authority over the Frankish kingdoms of Neustria and Bourgogne to the west and south.
615-618: Pope Deusdedit, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
618-907: Tang  Dynasty in China,
619-625: Pope Boniface V, rules the Catholic church in Rome.

622: Mohammed flees from his enemies to Medina (Islam Era begins). At this time Mohammed had already met the first Viking explorers and had fully understood the power of Valhalla in any physical battle regarding death and life of equally strong men in a battle.

Nothing in the Middle-Eastern thinking could match the reckless looking superior power of Vikings and he immediately incorporated this as an most important feature into his new religion we call Islam. This adopted behavior is now harassing the West and accepting this now 14 hundred years later appears too difficult for our politicians but it is the reality and we must defend ourselves accordingly. We have all the means to do that and it is sad as we know that Islam is totally defenseless against our military power. We would like to see cooperation that would bring all of them to the this century. However, it is totally up to tem what happens next - it will all be done shortly.

625-638: Pope Honorius I, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
627: Byzantines, defeat the Persians at Nineveh.
628-637: France, king Dagobert I, Frankish king of the Merovingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France. The details concerning the rulership of France during this period are incomplete.
630: Prophet Mohammed sets out toward Mecca with the army that captures it bloodlessly.
633: Prophet Mohammed dies.
635-750: Damascus, becomes the capital city of the Islamic Caliphs.
637: Jerusalem is captured by Islam.
637-655: France, king Clovis II, Frankish king of the Merovingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France. The details concerning the rulership of France during this period are incomplete.
640: Pope Severinus rules the Catholic church in Rome.
640-642: Pope John IV, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
639: Muslim armies conquer the southern territories of the Byzantine empire (Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Jordan).
641: Alexandria, Egypt falls to the Mohammedan Saracens during the reign of Heraclius, emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, and Egypt became a province of the caliphs or successors of Mohammed.
642-649: Pope Theodore I, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
649-654: Pope Martin I, rules the Catholic church in Rome, he is murdered while in office.
650: British Monarchy, (Anglo-Saxon) The British Isles were a patchwork of many kingdoms founded from native migrant communities and led by powerful chieftains or kings. In their personal feuds and struggles between communities for control and supremacy, a small number of kingdoms became dominant: Bernicia and Deira (which merged to form Northumbria in 651 A.D.(J)), Lindsey, East Anglia, Mercia, Wessex and Kent. Until the late seventh century, a series of warrior-kings in turn established their own personal authority over other kings, usually won by force or through alliances and often cemented by dynastic marriages.
654-657: Pope Eugene I, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
655-668: France, king Clotaire III, Frankish king of the Merovingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France.
657-673: Pope Vitalian, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
668-674: France, king Childeric II, Frankish king of the Merovingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France.
673-676: Pope Adeodatus II, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
674-691: France, king Thierry III, Frankish king of the Merovingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France.
676-678: Pope Donus, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
678-682: Pope Agatho, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
682-684: Pope Leo II, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
684-685: Pope Benedict II, rules the Catholic church in Rom
685-686: Pope John V, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
686-687: Pope Conon, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
687-701: Pope Sergius I, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
691: France, king Clovis III, Frankish king of the Merovingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France.
695-711: France, king Childebert II, Frankish king of the Merovingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France.
701-705: Pope John VI, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
705-708: Pope John VII, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
708: Pope Sisinnius, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
708-715: Pope Constantine, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
711-716: France, king Dagobert III, Frankish king of the Merovingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France.
715-731: Pope Gregory II, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
716-721: France, king Chilperic II, Frankish king of the Merovingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France.
721-737: France, king Thierry IV, Frankish king of the Merovingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France, following Thierry IV's rule there was a period of interregnum, (a period without a king ruling), this was between 737-43 AD
731-741: Pope Gregory III, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
741-751: End of Merovingian dynasty, Childeric III, France. During the 7th century, the Merovingian kings ceased to wield effective political power and became more and more symbolic figures; they began to allot more and more day-to-day administration to a powerful official in their household called the maior domo or majordomo. This Latin title literally translates to the greater one of the house; the usual English translation is Mayor of the Palace. The office of Mayor of the Palace itself became hereditary in Carolingian family.  Soon the Mayors were the real military and political leaders of the Frankish kingdom.  Charles Martel, son of Pepin of Herstal, rallied a Frankish army that repulsed a Muslim invasion from Spain in 732 near Poitiers.  Mayor Charles's son, the Mayor Pippin III, gathered support among Frankish nobles for a change in dynasty.  When the Pope appealed to him for assistance against the Lombards, Pippin insisted that the church sanction his coronation in exchange.  In 751, Childeric III, the last Merovingian, was deposed. He was allowed to live, but his long hair was cut and he was sent to a monastery.
741-752: Pope Zachary, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
750-1000: Trade and it's early development with Nordic Coutries

All long distance tarvel was easy in summertime when one had practically "free" wate higways to all directions. With this the trade to farthest lands tended to evolve to terrorims. Soon enought these merciless terorists became feared aroung the continetal Europe and the British Islands. Mainly the Swedes and the Norwegians were active in this profitable business and remained so for almost 300 years until their conclusive defeat in Britain in 1066.

The sea faring large shallow bottom boats filed with armed battle tested and well fed men made them an unstoppable force that could come in and leave all coastal palaces in Europe long before any serious defences could be mounted against them. They had a rudimentary compass to guide them and with that they could come right to the tarhet from behind the horizon without any warning. They killed the men who did not mange to escape, enjoyed the spoils, and took what they wanted and then disappeared behind the horizon.

Most people have never realized that the three Nordic countries: Norway, Sweden and Finland are encircled with in a summertime navigable water route. The Ocean and the inner sea part is obvious but there is also a less known but easily navigable major fresh water route located on the Russian territory just a short distance from the eastern border of Finland. In ancient times this was a vital trading route offering the Varangian, Saami and Finnish tribes an alternative trading route to the West and more importantly to the far south through the Russian river systems with access all the way to Mediterranean basin via Black Sea. It also offered access further to the Esat to Caspian Sea and it's tributories. Rock carvings on the route tell the stories reaching thousands of years back in time.

By 750 the Scandinavian explorer / hunters / traders had permanent settlements in strategic locations alongside the major waterways outside the the original Nordic countries reaching towards the Southern lands both in the East and in the West. This expansion was not the privilege of the Swedes as all tribes in the North started behaving the same way to secure the right to survive. It did not take long or much for new alliances to form or to break. 

The colonists formed large cooperatives to survive and protect their settlements.  The now permanent posts created shelters for the travelers and hunters, the farming communities and the manufacturers of tools and weapons.  Markets and the flow of information was soon centered to these colonies.  This new environment solidified further with permanent cooperatives aiming for full protection against all raiders who were always there trying to take an advantage of these communities.  There were no borders nor laws outside these communities.  However, the early inhabitants in the interiors of the lands knew their surroundings and the wilderness around extremely well and who belonged there and who did not.  A stranger without a local "guide" took a risk of never returning by venturing into these sparsely inhabited lands, lakes, rivers and forests.

The south-eastern, the "new", region had at that time a population composed of Slavic, Finnic, and Norse peoples, among which the dominant group was a Rus' tribe or tribes. The region was also a center of operations for the Danish and Swedish and Varangian adventurers, merchants, hunters and pirates.  The rivers, large lakes and sea with inlets inside the whole region to the north to the "White Sea" , over to the Atlantic around Norway to the South and back to Finnic territories and Russia via Danish and Swedish coast lines, formed a natural environment where the seamanship and boatbuilding was bound to develop to perfection.  The boats had to be light to get over land barriers between the vast river systems, carry high load and the same time to offer speed and agility to navigate in long, winding and narrow rivers offering an easy access to vast lands in addition to the Nordic countries also the whole Russian planes and a little later the rest of the Europe.


Finns were the masters of fresh river and lake travel with their 60,000+ lakes that divided the country into an almost totally navigable water routes often separated only by narrow forest covered hills from each others - a few hundred meters between them. This all was perfect for travel with agile and shallow bottom boats that could carry small groups of people with all what they ever needed.

The language map below shows the navigable water way from lake "Ääninen" through theinteriors of the Russia all the way to the Black Sea.  It is fitting that the inlet part from the Barents sea into this water route is called the "White Sea".   This was the route the "Varangians" from the present day northern Norway and the Finns, and later on the other Nordic peoples like the Swedews and Danes ventured all the way down to the Black Sea, Mediterranean and the Caspian Seas (these water routes can be traced easily e.g. from the "Google earth"). 

This map below shows area of Scandinavian settlement in the eighth (dark red), ninth (red), tenth (orange) and eleventh (yellow) centuries. Green denotes to areas subjected to frequent Viking raids as claimed by the contemporary Swedes.  It is funny that they jave included Finland and Northern Norway to areas they were frequemtly raiding. This makes no sense. Why fight against people with equal strength, ferocity, and fighting skills protected by their own mostly unaccessible lands when the real loot is availble from the softer targets in the South.


What is more interesting the above two maps and the one below together tell that the mixt blood tribe of "Swedes" were the latecomers into this game being the descendants of the Danish and Germanic immigrants and all the Norse People including all the Norwegian, Sami and the Finnish tribes. 

The key for survival in the North was the ability to utilize the Ocean and the mountains in the West and Noirth and the ever present forests, rivers and inland water routes and coastal waters in the East and South.

In this environment the colonies needed cooperation and means to communicate between them to inform of the approaching boats.  The forests and the network of waterways were much more than an unsurpassable barrier to prevent any threatening approach over the lands. The colonists formed large cooperatives to survive and protect their settlements.  The now permanent posts created shelters for the travelers and hunters, the farming communities and the manufacturers of tools and weapons.  Markets and the flow of information was soon centered to these colonies.  This new environment solidified further with permanent cooperatives aiming for full protection against all raiders who were malways there trying to take an advantage of these communities.  There were no borders nor laws outside these communities.  However, the early inhabitants in the interiors of the lands knew their surroundings and the wilderness around extremely well - who belonged there and who did not.  A stranger without a "guide" took a risk by venturing into these sparsely inhabited lands of lakes, rivers and forests.

Viking times were unstable proven by the large numbers of weapons buried with the peopleIn some areas like in Luistaris we can find about double the amount of weaponry in burial places compared to much richer places in Sweden where the stories tell of the Vikings that were famous from their fighting skills.  The Finns have found plenty of highly decorative and valuable weaponry in large quantities from some of their local burial sites. During these times the local people protected themselves but the weapons were also considered as highly priced status symbols.  The communities had their own coastal mountain castles to which the people withdraw whenever the strangers were moving past the areas. 

The movements of these strangers were reported forward by large bonfires.  The defensive rock castles formed long lines of defensive structures and the other Scandinavians called the southern coast of Finland "Balagarðssið"the bonfire land.  If any of these rock castles were attacked the others came to help from back forcing the attacker to fight to two directions and that meant usually a defeat to the attacker.   The Finns were actually very good in their defenses regardless of the relatively small population, e.g. in 1050 a large Viking armada was trying to invade the interior lands of of "Häme"  via "Kokemäenjoki" but was just annihilated and only small group of this invading armada was ever able to escape back to the sea via a small river "Porvoonjoki".

As some of the defensive wars of one rock castles could last months it is noteworthy to know that the defenders were familiar with the impact of diseases and stories tell of infected arrows that could spread a virulent disease among the attackers and that meant usually their defeat.  These stories are connected to a god of the diseases "Meri-Tursas" or "Turisas" that gave a victory in a war by simply shooting an infected arrow inside the enemy troops. 

The alliances with the Finnish tribes living in the north and east all the way to Ural mountains and beyond in the North with the Finnish roots expanding also to the south to Volga river  gave the Norse People including the Viking raiders an opportunity to expand the trading to the east in a major way. 

The lands around the fresh water route to the North form today the Russian sate Karelia maintaining it's original Finnish name Karjala inhabited originally by the Lapps (Saami) and the Finnish tribes. It is also to be noted that a multitude of names mentioned in the Finnish National Epos, Kalevala, are physically still names in Karelia.


The existence of this ancient trading route is best understood by studying the B&W picture (left) taken from space by NASA.  This picture shows also that the theree Nordic countries have formed an island during each of the warmest time periods when Ocean levels would peak. The above is likely one of the more reasonable interpretations of the history of the three true Nordic peoples: the Varangians (includin the Norwegians), the Saami and the Finns.  We know that this eastern water route was ancient. The river and lake shores contain plenty of ancient rock carvings telling of the life and activities dated thousands of years back in time.

To the circle completeing eastern trade route from south one enters from the Gulf of Finland through the river "Neva" flowing through the present day St. Petersburg. River "Neva" leads to the largest fresh water body in Europe, lake "Laatokka" (Ladoka, Ladozskoe Zero) located to the North-East from St. Petersburg.  This lake surface is only 1 meter above the Gulf of Finland. On the other side of the lake river "Syväri" is the main tributory to lake "Laatokka" with a water flow around 800 m^3 per second coming from lake "Ääninen" (Onezkoje Zero) located about 100+ kilometers further in the North-East at elevation of about 34 meters higher. Note that this lake "Ääninen" is the second largest fresh water body in Europe.

The routes one further to the real North and to the South start from this lake from two separate rivers. 

On the route to the North, lake "Vygo Zero" is a water divider at elevation of 80 meters above the sea level.  It has two outgoing rivers, one flowing to the south to the lake "Ääninen" and the other flowing to due North ending to "Vienan Meri", or the "White Sea", that is part of the Barents Sea and the Artctic Ocean.  The fourth large lake in this system called "Suav Järvi" or lake "Seco Zero" is located towards the Finnish border at elevation of about 120 meters from the sea level.  This large upland lake fills the lake "Vygo Zero" located some 40 meters below.  These lakes collect the waters from a huge land area and that has created this unique water system.

The route to the Russian interior first to Nogorod and to the far lands in the South start from lake "Ääninen". The river system in the south opens the whole Russian territory all the way to the Black Sea andto the Caspian Sea with it's tributories.

The "Varangian" homeland the northern part of Norway with the "Varangian inlet" is still today the richest fishing ground in this part of the World.  This was clear for the Norwegian, Finnish and the Sami inhabitamts of the northern Scandinavia. With ample food supply the population centers like the "Varangian Inlet" and others grew strong and their "young and restless"  were for sure ready to explore it all in ancient times and even expand with settlemenst towards the warmer climate.  Later on the Danes and Swedes joined this effort.

The recently discovered feature of the central northern Scandinavia is a potential huge meteorite crater with a diameter of about 600 kilometers, well visible in the B&W picture above (for more).  The core of this meteorite must have been huge 60-70 kilometers.  It might be the largest asteroid among the so far discovered and it would have impacted the whole planet and all life forms on it.   As a peculiar feature of the generally flat central Finland the thickness of the earth's crust is there over 50 kilometers making this flatland to have the third thickest solid crust on earth after Himalayas and the central Andies in South America. For further evidence there are enormously rich iron mines on the rim on the Swedish side and likewise rich nickel mines on the Kola peninsula in Russia, again on the rim impact area. Smaller mineral discoveries are concntrating on the rim area across the Finnish territory.

The development on the Swedish side with advancement of the agriculture and farming and incoming Germanic and Danish diaspora from Northrn Europe created strong settlement in Southern Sweden. The land was fertile allowing rapidly growing population centers. The survival of the incomers was secured by marriages with the original tribes speaking the Old West Norse dialecs. The continuing influx overwhelmed slowly the local tribes on the coastal areas and Gotland and transformed the Old West Norse dialect to the Old East Norse dialect we call Swedish.  The life was relatively easy as the micro climate was mild and good for farming and fishing.  The population centers had soon enough large supply of "young and restless" who did not want to stay idle and started exploring the lands around together with their neighbors - this was the prelude for the coming age of the Vikings.


[Under Construction]Working still on this story....

In this environment the colonies needed cooperation and means to communicate between them to inform of the approaching boats.  The forests and the network of waterways were much more than an unsurpassable barrier to prevent any threatening approach over the lands.  

A Rus' Khaganate was propably one of the first elementary cluster of city-states that formed towards the North in the northeastern Russia.  At this time the central and southern Europe already had their own mini states that all were hungry for power.  Mini wars and all kind of loose alliances were continuously in flux.  However, these European city states never ventured into the North.  Perhaps their explorers and scouts only seldom returned or found the nature too demanding, cold with inhabitants that were always armed, tall and totally ruthless.

According to contemporaneous sources, the population centers of the region, which may have included the proto-towns of Holmgard (Novgorod), Aldeigja (Ladoga), LyubshaAlaborgSarskoe Gorodishche, and Timerevo, were under the rule of a monarch or monarchs using the Old Turkic title Khagan. The Rus' Khaganate period marked the genesis of a distinct Rus' ethnos, and its successor states would include Kievan Rus' and later states from which modern Russia evolved.

Their expansion towards the North was not unnoticed by the peoples of the North and that may have brought them into the Khaganate to see and explore.  Knowing more than well how to survive in a cooperative way with sharing these new settlers from the North understood the opportunities that were offered and carried it all back to their homelands.  They knew how to move and utilize the river routes much better than these new comers and they all knew that they were superior on waterways and that meant that their time to go has come.

The Varangians or Varyags, in Old East Slavic, are first mentioned by the Primary Chronicle as having exacted tribute from the Slavic and Finnic tribes in 859.  It was the time of rapid expansion of the Vikings in Northern Europe; England began to pay Danegeld in 859, and the Curonians of Grobin faced an invasion by the Old Norse people, living in Sweden at about the same date.  The name Varangians or Varyags for these Old Norse people is derived from their major place of origin or their longboat a "war ship".  The Sweden was called Ruotsi by the Finns and that likely coined these people to Varyag Rus or Variangian Rus.

In 862, the Finnic and Slavic tribes rebelled against the Vikings or the Varangian Rus, and drove them back to their homelands.  However, the inability to solve their internal power games prompted soon deals that brought the Vikings, the Varangian Rus to create a balance and with that a peace to the region.

Contrary to the claims is makes no sense for the Vikings to keep on raiding the Finns and their territory as claimed as this would have resulted to nothing else but endless warfare.  Making the locals to bitter enemies makes no sense when one is trading past their long coastal area and further in the east river networks leading to Black and Caspian Seas.   The opposite was likely closer to the truth.  The Vikings as logical people would rather made the Finns to their partners in their travels.  They also needed the help from Finns to gain access and maintain their more or less permanent presence in the Russian territories all the way to Black and Caspian seas. 

Viikin times were unstable proven by the large numbers of weapons buried with the peopleIn some areas like in Luistaris we can find about double the amount of weaponry in burial places compared to much richer places in Sweden where the stories tell of the Vikings that were famous from their fighting skills.  The Finns have found plenty of highly decorative and valuable weaponry in large quantities from some of their local burial sites. During these times the local people protected themselves but the weapons were also considered as highly priced status symbols.  The communities had their own coastal mountain castles to which the people withdraw whenever the strangers were moving past the areas. 

The movements of these strangers were reported forward by large bonfires.  The defensive rock castles formed long lines of defensive structures and the other Scandinavians called the southern coast of Finland "Balagarðssið"the bonfire land.  If any of these rock castles were attacked the others came to help from back forcing the attacker to fight to two directions and that meant usually a defeat to the attacker.   The Finns were actually very good in their defenses regardless of the small population, e.g. in 1050 a large Viking armada was trying to invade the interior of "Häme"  via "Kokemäenjoki" but was annihilated and only small group of this invading armada was able to escape back to the sea via "Porvoonjoki".

As some of the defensive wars of one rock castles could last months it is noteworthy to know that the defenders were familiar with the impact of diseases and stories tell of infected arrows that could spread a virulent disease among the attackers and that meant usually their defeat.  These stories are connected to a god of the diseases "Meri-Tursas" or "Turisas" that gave a victory in a war by shooting an infected arrow inside the enemy troops. 

[Under Construction]Working still on this story....

750-1258: Abbasid Caliphate - the Arabian Nights; Baghdad founded in 762; Abbasid Caliphate peaked ca 809, to the West it included all present day lands through Egypt, all the way to Tunis, in the East all the lands to India and in the North it reached to the mountains between the Black and Kaspian Sees, but excluded the present day Turkey.
751-768: France. Pepin (the Short), Mayor of the palace of Austrasia and king of the Franks. The son of the Frankish ruler Charles Martel, and the grandson of Pepin of Herstal. Pepin the short, he was mayor of the palace during the reign of (743-751), the last of the kings of the Merovingian dynasty. In 751, Pepin deposed Chideric and thus became the first king of the Carolingian dynasty. He was crowned by Pope Stephen II (III) in 754. When the pope was threatened by the Lombards of northern Italy, Pepin led an army that defeated them (754-755). He ceded to the pope territory that included Ravenna and other cities. This grant, called the donation of Pepin, laid the foundation for the Papal States. Pepin enlarged his own kingdom by capturing Aquitaine, or Aquitania, in southwestern France. He was succeeded by his sons Carloman and Charlemagne as joint kings.
752-757: Pope Stephen II (III), rules the Catholic church in Rome.
754: France. Pope Stephen II journeyed to France to anoint Pepin and his sons with "holy" oil as the biblical kings of Israel had been anointed by the prophets. Pepin in turn fought campaigns in Italy on the pope's behalf in 754 and 756. The king then turned over the lands he conquered in Italy to Pope Stephen II (III) and these became the Papal States-territory governed directly by the Roman Catholic papacy. Pepin's rule was divided, at his death in 768, between his sons Charles (the future Charlemagne) and Carloman. Carloman died three years later, however, and Charlemagne was the sole ruler of the Franks for more than four decades, until his death in 814.
756: Vatican established.
757-768: Pope Paul I, rules the Catholic church in Rome.

757-796: THE EARLIEST JEWISH BANKING PRACTICES IN UK? : From A.D. 757 to his death in 791, the great King Offa ruled the kingdom of Mercia, 1 one of the seven autonomous kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy. Offa was a wise and able administrator and a kindhearted leader, though he could be hard on his enemies. He established the first monetary system in England (as distinguished from Romano-Keltic Britain). On account of the scarcity of gold, he used silver for coinage and as a store of wealth. The standard unit of exchange was a pound of silver, divided into 240 pennies. The pennies were stamped with a star (Old English stearra), from which the word “sterling” is derived. In 787 Offa introduced a statute prohibiting usury: charging of interest on money lent. The laws against usury were further entrenched by King Alfred (r. 865-99), who directed that the property of usurers be forfeited, while in 1050 Edward the Confessor (1042-66) decreed not only forfeiture, but that a usurer be declared an outlaw and be banished for life.

British Monarchy, (Anglo-Saxon) Offa, king of Mercia seized the throne after a civil war, and established supremacy over many lesser kings. He consolidated his position by marrying his daughters to the kings of Wessex and Northumbria, and was the first ruler to be called 'king of the English'. Offa ruthlessly overcame strong opposition in southern England, by the end of his reign, Offa was master of all of England south of the Humber. In the first recorded coronation in England, Offa's son Ecgfrith was consecrated in 787 A.D.(J) in Offa's lifetime in an attempt to secure the succession. However, Ecgfrith died childless months after Offa's death. Offa's success in building a strong unified kingdom caused resistance in other kingdoms. The Mercians' defeat at the hands of Egbert of Wessex at the battle Ellendun in 825 A.D.(J) meant that supremacy passed to Wessex.

768-772: Pope Stephen III (IV), rules the Catholic church in Rome.
742-814: Charlemagne in France
768-814: France, King Charlemagne, Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France. Charlemagne also ruled as Emperor of the "Holy Roman Empire" from 800-814 A.D.(J) His name, Charlemagne, in Latin "Carolus Magnus" (Charles the Great), he was king of the Franks (768-814) and Emperor of the Romans (800-814), who led his Frankish armies to victory over numerous other peoples and established his rule in most of western and central Europe. He was the best known and most influential king in Europe in the Middle Ages. Charlemagne was born probably in Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), on April 2, 742, the son of Frankish king Pepin the short and the grandson of Charles Martel. In 751 Pepin dethroned the last Merovingian king and assumed the royal title himself. He was crowned by Pope Stephen II (III) in 754. Besides anointing Pepin, Pope Stephen II (III) anointed both Charlemagne and his younger brother Carloman.
772-795: Pope Adrian I, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
793: Vikings arrive to British Islands - Lindisfarne
795-816: Pope Leo III, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
800: France. Military campaigns occupied Charlemagne in the early years of his reign. Like his father, he fought in Italy, both on the pope's behalf and on his own, conquering Lombards and taking the Lombard royal title for himself. He campaigned in Spain against both the Muslims and the Basques and established a frontier territory called the Spanish March. In the east he fought the Bavarians and the Avars and absorbed them into his realm. For three decades he campaigned against the Saxons in Germany, eventually bringing them under his control and forcing them to convert to "Christianity."
800: Pope Leo III crowns Frankish king Charlemagne as emperor of the "Holy Roman Empire." For a thousand years, this empire represented the union between Church & State, during this time the clergy enjoyed varying degrees of power over secular authorities.  However, the "Empire" was no more an empire...

800-1025: The time of Vikings

Old Icelandic was essentially identical to Old Norwegian and together they formed the Old West Norse dialect of Old Norse. The Old East Norse dialect was spoken in Denmark andSweden and settlements in Russia,[2] England and Normandy. The Old Gutnish dialect was spoken in Gotland and in various settlements in the East. In the 11th century, it was the most widely spoken European language ranging from Vinland in the West to the Volga in the East. In Russia it survived longest in Novgorod and probably lasted into the 13th century.[2]

Rurik or Riurik (RussianРю́рикOld East NorseRørikmeaning "famous ruler"; ca. 830 – ca. 879) was a Varangian chieftain who gained control of Ladoga in 862, built theHolmgard settlement near Novgorod, and founded the Rurik Dynasty which ruled Russia until the 17th century.  The Varangians or Varyags (RussianUkrainian : Варяги, Varyagi) sometimes referred to as Variagians were Scandinavians, mostly Swedes, who migrated eastwards and southwards through what is now Russia, Belarus and Ukraine mainly in the 9th and 10th centuries. Engaging in tradepiracy and mercenary activities, they roamed the river systems and portages of Gardariki, reaching the Caspian Sea and Constantinople.[1]

The map (left) of northern countries and surrounding seas published in the Atlas of Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598), a Dutch mapmaker, started spreading the knowledge of the shapes of Nordic countries. Altogether 40 different editions of the Atlas were made in several languages.  Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega are still small lakes along the waterway between the Gulf of Finland and the White Sea. This ancient trade route from Gulf of Finland to the White Sea used by the Finns, Lapps, Russians and the Varangians is shown quite well in this map while still the two largest lakes in Europe, Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega on this route are still totally in a wrong scale.  Lake Alba in the North on this map has not yet been resized nor renamed.  It is unknown why this large lake is where it is.  However, it could actually be lake Inari in the Northern Finland as this relatively large lake is the only large lake that flows to the Arctic sea and it must have been well known to all Varangians in the North. 

As the term Varangian remained in use in the Byzantine Empire until the 13th century while at that time it was largely disconnected from its originally Norwegian/Lapp/Finnish roots.

The more modern map (below) showe the major Varangian and the Viking trade routes: the Volga trade route (in red) and the Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks (in purple). Other trade routes of the 8th-11th centuries shown in orange


In 860, from Kiev, that the Rus under Askold and Dir launched their first attack on Constantinople. The result of this initial attack is disputed, but the Varangians continued their efforts as they regularly sailed on theirmonoxylae down the Dnieper into the Black Sea. The Rus' raids into the Caspian Sea were recorded by Arab authors in the 870s and in 910, 912, 913, 943, and later. Although the Rus had predominantly peaceful trading relations with the Byzantines, the rulers of Kiev launched the relatively successful naval expedition of 907 and the abortive campaign of 941 against Constantinople, as well as Sviatoslav I's large-scale invasion of the Balkans in 968-971.

These raids were successful in the sense of forcing the Byzantines to re-arrange their trading arrangements; militarily, the Varangians were usually defeated by the superior Byzantine forces, especially in the sea and due to the Byzantines' use of Greek fire. Many atrocities were reported by (not wholly impartial) Greek historians during such raids: the Rus' were said to have crucified their victims and to have driven nails into their heads [citation needed].

Led by Rurik and his brothers Truvor and Sineus, the invited Varangians (called Rus) settled around the town of Holmgard (Novgorod).As early as 911, the Varangians are also mentioned as fighting for the Byzantines. About 700 Varangians served along with Dalmatians as marines in Byzantine naval expeditions against Crete in 902 and a force of 629 returned to Crete under Constantine Porphyrogenitus(700 and 629 troops, respectively) in 949. A unit of 415 Varangians was involved in the Italian expedition of 936. It is also recorded that there were Varangian contingents among the forces that fought the Arabs in Syria in 955. During this period, the Varangian mercenaries were known as the Great Companions (Gr. Μεγάλη Εταιρεία).

With the decline of the Byzantine empire, the emperors increased their reliance on the Varangian mercenaries. In 988 Basil II requested military assistance from Vladimir of Kiev to help defend his throne. In compliance with the treaty made by his father after the Siege of Dorostolon (971), Vladimir sent 6,000 men to Basil. In exchange, Vladimir was given Basil's sister, Anna, in marriage. Vladimir also agreed to convert to Christianity and to bring his people into the Christian faith.

In 989 the Varangian guard, led by Basil II himself, landed at Chrysopolis to defeat the rebel general Bardas Phocas. On the field of battle, Phocas died of a stroke in full view of his opponent; upon the death of their leader, Phocas' troops turned and fled. The brutality of the Varangians was noted when they pursued the fleeing army and "cheerfully hacked them to pieces."



803-879: This ongoing new history writing started already during the Swedish King, Gustav Wasa (1496-1560) who strengthened his kingdom to a real Nation.  It was natural for him to eliminate as much of the Finnish history and records as ever possible - as people without history are nothing.  He accomplished most of this by making sure that all Church records that were found from the Finnish territory were burned.  So strong was this urge to eliminate the history of the Finns  that still on the 16th century a spoken verse with "Kalevala"-rime in wrong place would bring the speaker death sentence by burning on a stake.  No wonder that very little is known and that the knowledge of the old ways among the people disappeared. The Catholic Church supported also taking over the ancient sacrifical places (lund) and temples and building Churches over them, according to Papal letter in Vatican Archives.

The earliest Byzantine record of the Rus's is written prior to 842, preserved in the Greek Life of St. George of Amastris, speaking of a raid that had extended into Paphlagonia . [4]In 839, emperor Theophilus negotiated with the foreigners, whom he called Rhos, to provide a few mercenaries for his army.


Old Norse language Ca 900

813: France and Germany. Even before 800, Viking raiders from Scandinavia had begun attacking the coastal areas of the Carolingian realm. The full impact of these raids, however, was not felt until the reign of Charlemagne's successor, Louis I the Pious, whom Charlemagne himself crowned emperor in 813. The Viking attacks and succession problems after Louis I the Pious made a shambles of the Carolingian Empire. Louis sought to provide an orderly succession by decreeing in 817 that his eldest son, Lothair, would inherit the empire and that his two younger sons, Pepin of Acquitaine and Louis II (Louis the German), would hold subordinate kingdoms within the empire. The emperor then had a fourth son, Charles, by his second wife, who was determined that her son would not be excluded from the royal inheritance. The sons fought bitterly among themselves and sometimes against their father as well. One temporary settlement among the three brothers is of particular historical interest. By the Treaty of V
814-840: France, king Louis I, (the Debonaire), Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France. The details concerning the rulership of France during this period are incomplete.
816-817: Pope Stephen IV (V), rules the Catholic church in Rome.
817-824: Pope Paschal I, rules the Catholic church in Rome.

820-Present: Russia: Directly north of the Khazar Kingdom at the height of its power a small Slavic state was organized in 820 A.D. on the south shore of the Gulf of Finland where it flows into the Baltic Sea. This small state was organized by a small group of Varangians from the Scandinavian peninsula on the opposite shore of the Baltic Sea. The native population of this newly formed state consisted of nomad Slavs who had made their home in this area from earliest recorded history. This infant nation was even smaller than our state of Delaware. This newly-born state however was the embryo which developed into the great Russian Empire. In less than 1000 years since 820 A.D. this synthetic nation expanded its borders by ceaseless conquests until it now includes more than 9,500,000 square miles in Europe and Asia, or more than three times the area of continental United States.

Rurik or Riurik (RussianРю́рикOld East NorseRørikmeaning "famous ruler"; ca. 830 – ca. 879) was a Varangian chieftain who gained control of Ladoga in 862, built the Holmgardsettlement near Novgorod, and founded the Rurik Dynasty which ruled Russia until the 17th century.  The Varangians or Varyags (RussianUkrainian : Варяги, Varyagi) sometimes referred to as Variagians were Scandinavians, mostly Swedes, who migrated eastwards and southwards through what is now Russia, Belarus and Ukraine mainly in the 9th and 10th centuries. Engaging in tradepiracy and mercenary activities, they roamed the river systems and portages of Gardariki, reaching the Caspian Sea and Constantinople.[1]

In the year 986 A. D. the ruler of Russia, Vladimir I, became a convert to the Christian faith in order to marry a Catholic Slavonic princess of a neighboring sovereign state. The marriage was otherwise impossible. Vladimir I thereupon also made his newly-acquired Christian faith the state religion of Russia replacing the pagan worship formerly practiced in Russia since it was founded in 820 A.D. Vladimir III and his successors as the rulers of Russia attempted in vain to convert his so-called or self-styled "Jews," now Russian subjects, to Russia's Christian state religion and to adopt the customs and culture of the numerically predominant Russian Christian population. The so-called or self-styled "Jews" in Russia refused and resisted this plan vigorously. They refused to adopt the Russian alphabet in place of the Hebrew characters used in writing their "Yiddish" language. They resisted the substitution of the Russian language for "Yiddish" as their mother-tongue. They opposed every attempt to bring about the complete assimilation of the former sovereign Khazar nation into the Russian nation. They resisted with every means at their disposal. The many forms of tension which resulted produced situations described by history as "massacres," "pogroms," "persecution," discrimination, etc.

In Russia at that period of history it was the custom as in other Christian countries in Europe at that time to take an oath, vow or pledge of loyalty to the rulers, the nobles, the feudal landholders and others in the name of Jesus Christ. It was after the conquest of the Khazars by the Russians that the wording of the "Kol Nidre" (All Vows) prayer was altered. The new altered version of the "Kol Nidre" (All Vows) prayer is referred to in the Talmud as "the law of revocation in advance." The "Kol Nidre" (All Vows) prayer was regarded as a "law." The effect of this "LAW OF REVOCATION IN ADVANCE" obtained for all who recited it each year on the eve of the Day of Atonement divine dispensation from all obligations acquired under "oaths, vows and pledges" to be made or taken in the COMING YEAR. The recital of the "Kol Nidre" (All Vows) prayer on the eve of the Day of Atonement released those so-called or self-styled "Jews" from any obligation under "oaths, vows or pledges" entered into during the NEXT TWELVE MONTHS. The "oaths, vows and pledges" made or taken by so-called or self-styled "Jews" were made or taken "with tongue in cheek" for twelve months.

824-827: Pope Eugene II, rules the Catholic church in Rome
827: Pope Valentine, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
827-844: Pope Gregory IV, rules the Catholic church in Rome
840-877: France, king Charles I, (the Bald), Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France. The details concerning the rulership of France during this period are incomplete.
844-847: Pope Sergius II, rules the Catholic church in Rome
847-855: Pope Leo IV, rules the Catholic church in Rome
850-933: Norway: Viking King HARALD I. (850-933), surnamed Haarfager (of the beautiful hair), first king over Norway, succeeded on the death of hisfather Halfdan the Black in A.D. 860 to the sovereignty of several small and somewhat scattered kingdoms, which had come into his father's hands through conquest and inheritance and lay chiefly in south-east Norway (see Norway). The tale goes that the scorn of the daughter of a neighboring king induced Harald to take a vow not to cut nor comb his hair until he was sole king of Norway, and that ten years later he was justified in trimming it; whereupon he exchanged the epithet "Shockhead" for the one by which he is usually known. In 866 he made the first of a series of conquests over the many petty kingdoms which then composed Norway; and in 872, after a great victory at Hafrsfjord near Stavanger, he found himself king over the whole country. His realm was, however, threatened by dangers from without, as large numbers of his opponents had taken refuge, not only in Iceland, then recently discovered, but also in the Orkneys, Shetlands, Hebrides and Faeroes, and in Scotland itself; and from these winter quarters sallied forth to hurry Norway as well as the rest of northern Europe. Their numbers were increased by malcontents from Norway, who resented Harald's claim of rights of taxation over lands which the possessors appear to have previously held in absolute ownership. At last Harald was forced to make an expedition to the west to clear the islands and Scottish mainland of Vikings. Numbers of them fled to Iceland, which grew into an independent commonwealth, while the Scottish isles fell under Norwegian rule. The latter part of Harald's reign was disturbed by the strife of his many sons. He gave them all the royal title and assigned lands to them which they were to govern as his representatives; but this arrangement did not put an end to the discord, which continued into the next reign. When he grew old he handed over the supreme power to his favorite son Erik "Bloody Axe," whom he intended to be his successor. Harald died in 933, in his eighty-fourth year.
855-858: Pope Benedict III, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
858-867: Pope Nicholas I, rules the Catholic church in Rom
862: Russia:  Viking Leader, Rurik, becomes the ruler of Novgorod
862: Two Greek-speaking brothers, Cyril and Methodius, went to Moravia, (now part of the Czech Republic), they began to translate the Bible into Old Slavonic. To do so, they devised the Glugolitic alphabet, which was later superseded by the Cyrillic alphabet, (named after Cyril). This was the source of present-day Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian, and Bulgarian scripts. The Slavic Bible served people of that area for generations.
862-872: Pope Adrian II, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
871-899: British Monarchy, (Anglo-Saxon) Alfred (871-899) From the late 8th century, attacks by Vikings from Scandinavia increased. After a major invasion in 865, the kingdoms of Northumbria and Mercia were rapidly overrun, and in 871, the Danish army attacked Wessex. The Wessex forces under the command of Alfred, then aged 21, defeated the Danes at the battle of Eddington in 878, The Danes withdrew to an area north of a frontier running from London to Chester. Alfred set about reforming his kingdom including the coinage, literacy, religion and education, Alfred himself was illiterate in Latin until the age of 38. Alfred directed the translation of religious instruction, philosophy, and history into the vernacular, this was partly so that people could read his orders and legislation. Alfred's policies presaged the Wessex kings' rule of all of England during the next century.
872-882: Pope John VII, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
878-1061: Arabs (sarasens) rule in Sicily
879-882: France, King Louis III, Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France. The details concerning the rulership of France for this period are incomplete.
882-1150: Russia: Viking Leader Rurik is followed by Oleg who conquers Kiev in 882.  Kiev becomes leading power center until mid 1100.
882-884: Pope Marinus I, rules the Catholic church in Rome
882-884: France, king Carloman, Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France. The details of the rulership of France for this period are incomplete.
884-885: Pope Adrian III, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
884-888: France, king Charles II, (the Fat), Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France. The details concerning the details of the rulership of France for this period are incomplete.
885-891: Pope Stephen V (VI), rules the Catholic church in Rome.
888-898: France. The West Frankish crown was offered to Count Odo, or Eudes, son of Robert the Bold. After his death, however, it reverted back to the Carolingian dynasty, but they had little influence. By the time of Louis V in the late 900s, effective power had filtered down to the level of the castellan, a strongman with a retinue of fighters who controlled a castle and its immediate surroundings. The Vikings set up bases for their operations, usually at the mouths of rivers, but eventually they sought to have permanent settlements. In 911 a large company of Vikings (French Normands), under their leader Rollo, accepted from the West Frankish king Charles III, the Simple the territory in the lower Seine Valley that became known as Normandy.
891-896: Pope Formosus, rules the Catholic church in Rom
895: Pope Boniface VI, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
896-897: Pope Stephen VI (VII), rules the Catholic church in Rome.
897: Pope Romanus, rules the Catholic church in Rome
897-898: Pope Theodore II, rules the Catholic church in Rome
898-900: Pope John IX, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
898-929: France, Charles III, (the Simple), Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France. He was the posthumous son of king Louis II. Charles claimed the throne after 893, during the reign of Odo, or Eudes, count of Paris, but was not acknowledged as king until 898. His reign was plagued by raids of Scandinavian Vikings, to whom he ceded in 911 much of what was later to become known as Normandy. Charles was deposed in 922 by his chief vassals and imprisoned in Peronne from 923 until his death. Records differ somewhat about the history of the rule of France during this time. After his death there was a second interregnum, (a period when there was no king), between the years of 929-936 AD
899-924: British Monarchy, (Anglo-Saxon) Edward 'the Elder' (899-924) Well-trained by Alfred, his son Edward 'the Elder' was a bold soldier who defeated the Danes in Northumbria at Tettenhall in 910, and was acknowledged by the Viking kingdom of York. The kings of Strathclyde and the Scots submitted to Edward in 921, By military success and patient planning, Edward spread English influence and control. Much of this was due to his alliance with his formidable sister Aethelflaed, who was married to the ruler of Mercia and seems to have governed that kingdom after his death. Edward was able to establish an administration for the kingdom of England, while obtaining the allegiance of the Danes, Scots and Britons.
900-903: Pope Benedict IV, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
903-904: Pope Leo V, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
904-911: Pope Sergius III, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
907-960: Five Dynasties in China, ; 907-923 -- Later Liang  ; 923-936 -- Later Tang  ; 936-946 -- Later Jin  ; 947-950 -- Later Han  ; 951-960 -- Later Zhou
907-979: Ten Kingdoms in China,
911: Russia: Kiev makes a trade alliance with the Byzantine world.
911-913: Pope Anastasius III, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
913-914: Pope Landus, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
914-928: Pope John X, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
916-1125: Liao Dynasty in China,
925-939: British Monarchy, (Anglo-Saxon) Athelstan (925-939) Edward's heir Athelstan was also a distinguished and audacious soldier who pushed the boundaries of the kingdom to their furthest extent yet. In 927-928 Athelstan took York from the Danes; he forced the submission of king Constantine of Scotland and of the northern kings; all five Welsh kings agreed to pay a huge annual tribute, and Athelstan eliminated opposition from Cornwall. The battle of Brunanburh in 937, in which Athelstan led a force drawn from Britain and defeated an invasion by the king of Scotland in alliance with the Welsh and Danes from Dublin, earned him recognition by lesser kings in Britain
928-931: Pope Stephen VII (VIII), rules the Catholic church in Rome.
929: Pope Leo VI, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
930: Iceland, the Parliament of Iceland was esatblished. This is the oldest still acting parliament in the world.
931-936: Pope John XI, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
936-939: Pope Leo VII, rules the Catholic church in Rome
936-954: France, king Louis IV, (the Foreigner), Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France. The details concerning the rulership of France for this period are incomplete.
939-959: British Monarchy, (Anglo-Saxon) Edred (946-955) Little is known about the reigns of childless Athelstan's immediate successors. His half-brother Edmund successfully suppressed rebellions by the Mercian Danes, but he was murdered at a feast in his own hall, at the age of 25 in 946, after seven years on the throne (939-946). Edmund's brother Edred who dealt with trouble from the Danes in the north, brought up Edmund's sons as his heirs. The elder son Edwy was crowned by Oda, Archbishop of Canterbury, in 956, at Kingston-on-Thames. Aged 13 at his succession, Edwy became entangled in court factions, and Mercia and Northumbria broke away in rebellion. Edwy died before he was 20.
939-942: Pope Stephen VIII (IX), rules the Catholic church in Rome.
942-946: Pope Marinus II, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
946-955: Pope Agapitus II, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
954-986: France, king Lothaire, Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France and Germany. The details concerning the rulership of France for this period are incomplete.
955-963: Pope John XII, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
956-1015: Vladimir I (c. 956-1015) prince of Kiev, from among several options, chose the Byzantine rite. Baptized in 988, he led the Kievans to Christianity. This date is often considered the official birthday of the Russian Orthodox Church.
959-975: British Monarchy, (Anglo-Saxon) Edgar (959-975) Reigned as king in Mercia and Danelaw from 957, Succeeded his brother as king of the English on Edwy's death in 959, a death which probably prevented a civil war from breaking out between the two brothers. Edgar was a firm and capable ruler, whose power was acknowledged by other rulers in Britain, as well as Welsh and Scottish kings. Edgar's queen, Aelfthryth was the first consort to be crowned queen of England.
960-1279: Song  Dynasties in China,  established by Taizu this new power reunified most of China Proper. The Song period divides into two phases: Northern Song (960-1127) and Southern Song (1127-1279). The division was caused by the forced abandonment of north China in 1127 by the Song court, which could not push back the nomadic invaders.  The founders of the Song dynasty built an effective centralized bureaucracy staffed with civilian scholar-officials. Regional military governors and their supporters were replaced by centrally appointed officials. This system of civilian rule led to a greater concentration of power in the emperor and his palace bureaucracy than had been achieved in the previous dynasties.  The Song dynasty is notable for the development of cities not only for administrative purposes but also as centers of trade, industry, and maritime commerce. The landed scholar-officials, sometimes collectively referred to as the gentry, lived in the provincial centers alongside the shopkeepers, artisans, and merchants. A new group of wealthy commoners--the mercantile class--arose as printing and education spread, private trade grew, and a market economy began to link the coastal provinces and the interior.  It boasts no epic figures, though important reforms were attempted by Wang Anshi (1021–86). The period is famed for its art, literature, and historical writing, besides important agrarian, financial, industrial, scientific, and technological progress. Examples include the emergence of the world's earliest mechanical industry (water-power), the production of coke, and the development of the camera obscura, mariner's compass, movable type, spinning wheel, and water clock. Among warfare innovations was the cannon (1259).  Landholding and government employment were no longer the only means of gaining wealth and prestige. Culturally, the Song refined many of the developments of the previous centuries. Included in these refinements were not only the Tang ideal of the universal man, who combined the qualities of scholar, poet, painter, and statesman, but also historical writings, painting, calligraphy, and hard-glazed porcelain. Song intellectuals sought answers to all philosophical and political questions in the Confucian Classics. This renewed interest in the Confucian ideals and society of ancient times coincided with the decline of Buddhism, which the Chinese regarded as foreign and offering few practical guidelines for the solution of political and other mundane problems.  The Song Neo-Confucian philosophers, finding a certain purity in the originality of the ancient classical texts, wrote commentaries on them. The most influential of these philosophers was Zhu Xi (1130-1200), whose synthesis of Confucian thought and Buddhist, Taoist, and other ideas became the official imperial ideology from late Song times to the late nineteenth century. As incorporated into the examination system, Zhu Xi's philosophy evolved into a rigid official creed, which stressed the one-sided obligations of obedience and compliance of subject to ruler, child to father, wife to husband, and younger brother to elder brother. The effect was to inhibit the societal development of premodern China, resulting both in many generations of political, social, and spiritual stability and in a slowness of cultural and institutional change up to the nineteenth century. Neo-Confucian doctrines also came to play the dominant role in the intellectual life of Korea, Vietnam, and Japan. The dynasty fell to the Mongols under Kublai Khan.
933-961: Norway: Death of Viking King HAAKON I., surnamed "the Good" (ruled from 933 to hid death 961), was the youngest son of Harald Haarfager. He was fostered by King Aethelstan of England, who brought him up in the Christian religion, and on the news of his father's death in 933 provided him with ships and men for an expedition against his half-brother Erik, who had been proclaimed king. On his arrival inNorway Haakon gained the support of the landowners by promising to give up the rights of taxation claimed by his father over inherited real property. Erik fled, and was killed a few years later in England. His sons allied themselves with the Danes, but were invariably defeated by Haakon, who was successful in everything he undertook except in his attempt to introduce Christianity, which aroused an opposition he did not feel strong enough to face. He was killed at the battle of Fitje in 961, after a final victory over Erik's sons. So entirely did even his immediate circle ignore his religion that a court skald composed a poem on his death representing his welcome by the heathen gods into Valhalla.
962-1806: The "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" the capital was in Germany, the emperors and the majority of the subjects were Germans.  February 2, Pope John XII crowns Otto the Great, (Otho I), emperor of the "Holy Roman Empire,"  Under Otho I Germany and Italy were brought into a close relationship, but with Germany on top, for Italy was treated finally as a conquered province, at this point the KING OF THE NORTH in Daniel's prophecy effectively changes from Rome to Germany.
963-964: Pope Leo VIII, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
964-965: Pope Benedict V, rules the Catholic church in Rome
965-973: Pope John XIII, rules the Catholic church in Rome
973-974: Pope Benedict VI, rule the Catholic church in Rom
974-983: Pope Benedict VII, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
975-978: British Monarchy, (Anglo-Saxon) Edward (975-978) Edgar's sudden death at the age of 33 led to a succession dispute between rival factions supporting his sons Edward and Ethelred. Edward was murdered in 978 at Corfe Castle, Dorset, by his seven year old half-brother's supporters.
978-1016: British Monarchy, (Anglo-Saxon) Ethelred (978-1016) Known as the Un-raed or 'Unready' (meaning no counsel, or that he was unwise), Ethelred failed to win or retain the allegiance of many of his subjects. In 1002, he ordered the massacre of all Danes in England to eliminate potential treachery. Not being a soldier, Ethelred defended the country against increasingly rapacious Viking raids by diplomatic alliances with the Duke of Normandy in 991, (he later married the duke's daughter Emma). He bought off renewed attacks from the Danes with money levied through a tax called the Danegeld. Eventually, in 1013, Ethelred fled to Normandy when king Sweyn of Denmark dispossessed him. Ethelred returned to rule after Sweyn's death in 1014
980-1015: Russia: Vladimir the Great rules in Kiev as a sovereign. He saw the need of a unified religion form his nation, send emissaries to study all three religions in the Middle-East and decides in favor of the Orthodox Christianity in 988 (The Khazars had adopted Judaism some three hundred years earlier).
983-985: Pope John XIV, rules the Catholic church in Rome
985-996: Pope John XV, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
986-987: France, Louis V, Frankish king and last king to rule of the Carolingian dynasty, he rules a territory that is part of modern day France. Louis V died without a male heir, bringing an end to the Carolingian dynasty of kings to rule France. The details concerning the rulership of France for this period are incomplete.
987-1180: France. The Early Capetians, (an overview). When Louis V died, the magnates turned to Hugh Capet, Duke of France and descendant of Robert the Bold and Odo. Hugh was not elected king because he was strong but precisely because he would not be strong enough to control the other magnates; in fact, he secured election only by giving much of his land to the electors. The French nobles may have had no intention of installing the Capetians as a dynasty, but Hugh moved quickly to have his son Robert crowned. When Robert became king (as Robert II) in 966, he named his son Hugh as his successor, but due to the death of Hugh, another son, Henry, became king in 1031. The Capetians eventually passed the crown through a direct male line for more than three centuries, from 987 through 1328. The earliest Capetians remained subservient to the feudal princes, but the rebuilding of a royal administration, indicated by a new importance of royal provost, was evident by the 1040s. Nevertheless, in the late 11th c
987-996: France, king Hugh Capet becomes the ruler of France and the founder of the Capetian dynasty of kings, son of Hugh the Great, count of Paris, whom he succeeded in 956. His lordship over many fiefs around Paris and Orleans made him virtual ruler of France, and when king Louis V of France, the last of the Carolingian line, died without an heir in 987, Hugh's numerous vassals enabled him to win the election to the throne, defeating the Carolingian candidate, Charles, duke of Lorraine. Charles and many other great nobles of the realm attempted to resist his authority but, through force of arms and by judicious purchasing of allegiance, as well as through the support of the Catholic church, of which he was a devout member, Hugh established a measure of order within his kingdom. He had his son, Robert the Pious, (later Robert II), elected and crowned his associate and successor in 988, thereby confirming the house of Capet, which ruled France until 1328.
988: RussiaVladimir the Great (c. 956-1015) prince of Kiev, from among several options, chose the Byzantine rite. Baptized in 988, he led the Kievans to Christianity. This date is often considered the official birthday of the Russian Orthodox Church.
996-999: Pope Gregory V, rules the Catholic church in Rome.
996-1031: France, king Robert II, (the Pious), of the Capetian dynasty rules a territory that is part of modern day France. The son of king Hugh Capet, born in Orleans, and educated at Reims under the French scholar Gerbert, who later became Pope Sylvester II. In 996 Robert married, as his second wife, his cousin Bertha of Bourgogne. Two years later Pope Gregory V excommunicated him and annulled their marriage, which was considered incestuous by the Catholic church; in 1003 Robert submitted to the pope and married the daughter of the marquis of Provence, Constance of Arles, by whom he had four sons. He recognized Hugh, the eldest of these sons , as his successor. After Hugh's death in 1025, the other sons, aided by their mother, revolted; Robert was still fighting them at the time of his own death. Robert was called the Pious because of his humility and charity; he was also esteemed as a soldier and ruler. He is succeeded by his son Henry I.
997: Anti-Pope John XVI (!?)
999-1003: Pope Sylvester II, rules the Catholic church in Rome. 
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