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15,000-12,000: The sea level was down at least 125 meters of the present with fresh water tied to the ice caps on polar regions.  If it all would melt the sea level would rise about 80 meters from the present.  The latest of the great migrations of the land based species was at its peak.  The climate had already started warming but the see levels were still down opening "highways" to all who wanted to explore and find new grazing lands around the planet from tropics to polar regions.  The mammoth and reindeer, called caribou in the new world, and moos left the far east and moved east to Americas, followed by their ever meat loving "friends", humans, wolfs, beers, tigers, and it's cousin the sable-tooth tiger, and some others expanded their territories into the new continent.  Similar explorations happened around Indonesia, Asia and even Australia.
14,000: As the ice started melting spears and lances were used in hunting of big mammals in Northern Europe. 
13,366: Mayan Calendar a change of an epoch according to their 5,126 year cycle.
12,900: An asteroid hit somewhere the Northern hemisphere killing all of the largest land animals and almost all of the early humans in North America, the Clovis people.  High concentration of Iridium and hexagonal diamonds prove the case of an celestial object beyond doubt.  The exact place where this asteroid has so far remained elusive.  Is the impact crater somewhere in Greenland or hidden below the water surface in the oceans remains to be seen.

12,000: The Atlantic sea level rose "suddenly"  by 35 feet or 10.6 meters causing tremendous havoc in the world.  Perhaps this was also the beginning to the filling of the Mediterranean basin at some point of time, perhaps some 9,000 years later (2,370 BC "global" flood)  when as the see levels just kept on rising with the warming climate.

The North-American ice shelf was melting and for whatever reason the melting turned extremely rapid as the melting icy water opened it's dams both Pacific and Atlantic.  The sudden raise 10,6 meter caused by icy cold water to all oceans cooled the surface waters instantly and changed the climate to almost arctic and extremely dry.  This radical climate change killed the vegetation and with the food gone the large land animals and all others who could not adopt or move were doomed. 

Some claim that this fresh water mass would have stopped the ocean currents because the fresh water is lighter.  So is the warm water also.  However, the real "dynamo" of all atmospheric and ocean currents is the rotation of the earth and this power will always run over the impacts and changes in water salinity and temperature that both of course are important for keeping even the Northern Europe warm.

This loss of vegetation could explain the large accumulation of dust found on the Eastern seaboard and the dust storms that the humans at the time had to live through must have been a few magnitudes stronger than those we experienced in 1930's.  The Northern part of the American continent became quickly inhabitable. 

11,000-9,000: The North-America encountered a major loss of life both human and all large animals including Mammoth and Sable tooth cat.  On Eastern seaboard we can locate a thick layer (about 30 cm) of fine dust accumulating during this time period.  This layer has also plenty of tiny micro magnets that are typically present with asteroids but there is no crater.  The sudden raise of sea level as mentioned above indicate that perhaps these two time periods are connected.  

Perhaps the first European settlers had arrived already during the low sea water time period a couple of thousand years earlier as at that time there would have been more land bases that are today under water on the route making the journey possible.  Regardless we have found flint arrow heads resembling closely those made in Europe from large areas on the Eastern coastal areas in layer dated until 10,900 BC.  After that there is nothing but fine dust until we reach the year 9,000 BC when resembling arrowheads are now found from one place in Northern Mexico.

10,000-7,000: Invention of the plow in the warmer climates allowed the man at the same time to start pondering in earnest the divine issues, life and death, earth and the universe.   This led to formation of classes in the societies - as some did not bother wasting their time in these discussions, and some could not follow, as the teachers were not that well informed either.  However, these stories had always a serious tone as they transferred the knowledge from the past generations to the new ones and perhaps saved them if sudden events were to surface again - like they always will.
10,000:
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Many researchers believe that the ruins of Tiahuanaco, situated only 12 miles south of Lake Titicaca and near the center of the geoglyphic landscape, is the oldest city ever discovered on earth. Consistent with these theories, the Inca living in the region during the Spanish conquest explained that Tiahuanaco had existed for thousands of years before their civilization began.  According to Inca legend, Lake Titicaca was revered as the location where the god Viracocha created a race of giants and later, the first humans. The Inca maintained that the giants built Tiahuanaco and also many other cities and structures in the area. However, due to their great evil, Viracocha destroyed the giants in a world flood. This legend is still believed by the local Indian inhabitants to this day.

The geoglyphs covering this area also exhibit extreme age. In areas where ice age sediment surrounding hills and mountains has been eroded by rain and wind, patterns carved into the bedrock underneath the sediment has been exposed, suggesting their creation sometime before the last glacial melt near the end of the Pleistocene era, c. 13,000 years ago.  Early researchers speculated that Inca and pre-Inca farming techniques produced the anomalous patterns on the ground around Lake Titicaca, especially in the horizontal terracing found surrounding the lake itself.  However, the altitude of the Bolivian high plain presents several problems with a farming related explanation for the majority of the geoglyphs in the region. 

At an average of 12,500 feet above sea level, most of the shapes and patterns are located in areas that have not been conducive for growing crops for the last 10,000 years. Their creation would have required an immense workforce laboring for hundreds of years in such thin air that altitude sickness was a real danger... literally, a super human effort. Additionally, recent high-resolution satellite images suggest that most of the features are characteristic of religious and ritualistic forms of pre-Incan art. They may even represent a sophisticated yet unknown form of communication.

10,000: Arthritis already recognized as a specific health problem to the people.
10,000-5,500: Epipaleolithic era
9,500-9,000: The oldest archaeological evidence of human habitation in Denmark consists of flint tools.  Some scholars argue that the population slowly spread into what is present-day Sweden during the ensuing millennia.
9,500-9,000: The early Mesolithic time in Finland
9,000: First walled city founded at Jericho
8,240: Mayan Calendar a change of an epoch according to their 5,126 year cycle.

8,200 A sudden cooling of the earth lasting for a couple of centuries. Among the minor cooling trends this indicates that we have yet another cycle moving at about 3,500 year pulse level.

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6,500-4,200: Suomusjarvi Culture in Finland ( When this was true in the boonies up in the north the whole world must have been different compared to what we have been told).

6,300: The North-American Ice shelf collapsed raising global sea levels by as much as 1.4 meters.  Using radiocarbon dating and archaeological evidence, a British team showed the collapse of the North American ice sheet resulted to spread of farming around the Europe when the displaced farmers found new homes. 

The researchers said in the journal Quaternary Science Reviews their study provides direct evidence linking the flood that breached a ridge keeping the Mediterranean apart from the Black Sea to the rise of farming in Europe.

"The flooding of the Black Sea was not well dated but we got it down to about 50 years," said Chris Turney, a geologist at the University of Exeter, who led the study. "As soon as the flooding is done, farming goes crazy across Europe."  The researchers created reconstructions of the Mediterranean and Black Sea shoreline before and after the rise in sea levels. They estimated the flood covered some 73,000 square kilometers over a 34-year period, causing mass displacement of people.  Previous archaeological evidence has shown communities in the region were already farming when the flood hit. The Exeter team suggests the mass migration caused a sudden expansion of farming and pottery production across the continent.

"We looked at all the earliest data on farming in Europe and we found a little bit of farming in Greece and the Balkans just before the flood," Turney said in a telephone interview. "When the flood happened, farming seemed to stop but it was re-established a generation later across Europe."

6,000: Catal Huyuk flourishes in Anatolia.

6,000: With suddenly melting Ice raisng water level separated England from the rest of the Europe. From left: 1) Map, 2) dwelling debris, 3) Mammuth "knucklebone"

Doggerland (rot): Die neue Karte zeigt, dass das versunkene Land deutlich... Entdeckung in der Nordsee: Relikte untergegangener Welten.Fundstück aus dem Schlick: Mammutknochen vom Nordseegrund.

5,700: Mout Mazama erupted in Oregon forming the presently known Crater Lake.
5,500-3,100: Predynastic Period in Egypt, Hieroglyphics on Rosetta Stone
5,400: Permanent farming had reached Goseck Germany.
5,000: Temperature dropped 1.5 degrees C below the current level

4,900: Archaeologists reported the Goseck circle's identity and age this past August. First spotted by airplane, the circle is 75 meters wide. Originally, it consisted of four concentric circles--a mound, a ditch and two wooden palisades about the height of a person--in which stood three sets of gates facing southeast, southwest and north, respectively. On the winter solstice, someone at the center of the circles would see the sun rise and set through the southern gates.  The Goseck structure is the oldest and best preserved of the 20 excavated thus far, and it is the first circle whose function is evident. Though called the German Stonehenge, it precedes Stonehenge by at least two millennia. The linear designs on pottery shards found within the compound suggest that the observatory was built in 4900 B.C.

Perhaps the observatory's most curious aspect is that the roughly 100-degree span between the solstice gates corresponds with an angle on a bronze disk unearthed on a hilltop 25 kilometers away, near the town of Nebra. The Nebra disk, measuring 32 centimeters in diameter, dates from 1600 B.C. and is the oldest realistic representation of the cosmos yet found. It depicts a crescent moon, a circle that was probably the full moon, a cluster of seven stars interpreted to represent the Pleiades, scattered other stars and three arcs, all picked out in gold leaf from a background rendered violet-blue--apparently by applying rotten eggs. The two opposing arcs, which run along the rim, are 82.5 degrees long and mark the sun's positions at sunrise and sunset. The lowest points of the two arcs are 97.5 degrees apart, signifying sunrise and sunset on the winter solstice in central Germany at the time. Likewise, the uppermost points mark sunrise and sunset on the summer solstice. The sun's position at solstice has shifted slightly over the past millennia, notes Wolfhard Schlosser of the Ruhr University in Bochum, so that the angle between sunrise and sunset is now slightly farther apart than when the Nebra disk and the Goseck circle were made (by 1.6 and 2.8 degrees, respectively).

Nearby excavations of wood-and-clay houses have turned up a variety of grains and evidence of domesticated goats, sheep, pigs and cows. Farmers reached this part of the world some 500 years before they built the solar observatory. Although these earliest Neolithic agriculturists most likely measured only the sun's movements, over millennia they came to quantify the lunar cycle and the positions of constellations. The Pleiades, which depart the northern sky in spring and reappear in the fall, still mark crop cycles for many farmers around the world. The Nebra disk may have been a ritual object or, more likely--given its precision--a calculational tool used with observations at Goseck or a similar site to determine planting and harvest times.

The third arc on the disk, believes Francois Bertemes of the University of Halle-Wittenberg, is the stuff of legend. The ancients did not understand how the sun could set in the west and end up in the east the next morning. Representations of a disk in a ship, from Bronze Age Egypt and Scandinavia, reveal an age-old belief that a ship carried the sun across the night sky. The Nebra disk is the first evidence of such a faith in central Europe. That the land-bound cultivators knew of ships is no surprise: Bertemes points out that travelers spread the latest in Bronze Age technology as well as mythology.

The third gate at Goseck remains mysterious, however: it points north, but not quite. It may have nothing to do with astronomy, for the compound was more than a solar station. In addition to pottery shards and arrowheads within, excavators found the decapitated skulls of oxen, apparently displayed on poles, and parts of two human skeletons. The human bones were cleaned of flesh before being buried. Similar skeletons--several with cut marks or with arrowheads in their necks--have turned up in other circles, but archaeologists cannot agree on whether they attest to human sacrifices or to uncommonly gory funeral rites. Nevertheless, such ceremonies anoint the site as a temple, Bertemes notes--and show that science was inextricably entangled with superstition since Neolithic times.

4,400: Bow and arrow were commonly used in Switzerland
4,200-1,500: Finland, The Comb Ware Culture, the Comb Ceramic Culture or the Pit-Comb Ware culture was a dominating. This is a North-East European Stone Age culture that reached West and North from Finland through Northern Norway and Sweden to the ocean, then in the East over the Ural Mountains turning then to South reaching beyond the River Volga towards the Caspian and Black Sees but not reaching there, and turning towards West including Hungary and turning then back to North through the Baltic Countries to Finland.  The name Comb Ceramic is derived from the most common decoration on the ceramic finds that look like the imprints of a comb.

Early on this time period 3,300-200 the common language base separated to Finnish and Same languages.  In common mythology the understanding of the universe was well developed.  The sun was already at the center of the universe which was fairly easy to understand by all those living on northern latitudes close or north from arctic circle.  Copernicus & al. got the point a few thousand years later. The religious beliefs were divided in three different fields:

1. A mixture of Mythology and Cosmology of old stories and traditions

2. Astral, consisting of primitive understanding of the stars

3. Psycho mental, the human mind and the world it traveled  

When Christianity arrived to north it criminalized everything that was related to the shamanism imposing later on death penalties to anybody practicing any parts of it.  

4,200: Fired pottery, farming and permanent settlements developed in southern Scandinavian peninsula.
4,100-1,500: Somewhere during this time period Zarathustra creates Zoroastrianism.  He was convinced that all events of the world are based on cause and effects.  He based his teachings on three principles: good reflection, good word, and good deed.  The actions of human are based on action and reaction.  Because, the receiver of every good deed in this world will react accordingly with the good behavior.  Therefore, in the realm of interaction, if human beings act favorably, they receive favorable reaction and vice versa.  In this regard, if a person robs another one, he should not be surprised when some day he will be robbed as well.  Because of destruction of the Iranian libraries, there are no reliable sources to indicate when and where Zarathustra lived. Some researchers estimate that Zarathustra lived up to four thousand years before the birth of Christ, others claim that he lived only from six hundred to one thousand years before.  Considering that Darius the Great,  was affiliated with Zoroastrianism, in his petrographies is written that Zarathustra praised Ahura Mazda (God) as the creator of heaven and earth.  Herodotus, the Greek historian also testifies that the Iranian religion at that time has been monotheism.  Most of the worlds Zoroastrians are living in India and they are called Parsis.  Due to the Arabs' invasion of Iran most Parsis left their own country, and emigrated to India and present day Pakistan in the ninth century.  it can be rightly said that Zoroastrian philosophy, which was the main religious belief system of ancient Iranians and for about several hundred years was the basis of the Iranian culture and their life style, now is almost forgotten.  Zarathustra never ordered his followers to perform certain activities, but he recommended them to try to know the creator of the earth and heaven and adopt good manner, on the basis of their wisdom.  Therefore, Zarathustra was neither a prophet, nor we can call his spiritual path a “religion,” rather he was a thoughtful benevolent who recognized his God on the basis of his wisdom and never said he had a mission to bring a message from God to human beings
4,026-3,093: Adam, the beginning of human life according to the dominant Western Religion (Later dividing to Christians, Jews & Muslims)
3,896-2,984: Seth.
3,791-2,886: Enosh
3,761 (3,757?): World was created according to the Jewish view (this was 265 years later than others reported)
3,701-2,791: Kenan
3,631-2,736: Mahalalel
3,566-2,604: Jared

3,500: All Nordic religions and gods are based on old Finnish shamanistic and astronomical temple-culture. Stone Henge is based on older Finnish stone temples and astronomical culture from Finland. Also oldest identical Menhir- fallic stones are in Finland.

Oldest temples in Finland are 5500 years old: nicknames today are ”Jatulinkirkko”, ”Jatulin church”, Jätinkirkko”, ”Church of giants” - there are about 25 archelogical ruins.

”Viking”-culture is only one string from vast ancient Finnish speaking culture. European genetical character blue eyes are directly from Finnish genetic line.

Swedish language and culture is young and is based on Finnish genetic blue eyed line, only 1300 years old. Finnish culture and language is over10000 years old.

Still the blue eyed and light colored hair genetically dense population center is in Finland and not in Sweden.

Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Karelia, Estonian all have all been one Finnish speaking culture area from stone age to the year 300.

English population were until 300 genetically Finns but language has been changed earlier. English blue eyed population are nearest genetical population for Finns in Europe. Blue eyed ”Eastern” Finnish genetic line has not changed a lot from stone age.

3,500-1,900: Sumerian civilization flourishes, pictographic writing used in Mesopotamia.
3,500-2,000: Megalithic tombs in north-west Europe. We have been puzzled for a long time how the people were ever able to build places like  Stonehenge, or the Statues on Easter Island. 
3,500: Flax used for textiles in Middle East
3,404: Enoch born; 3,039 BC, He was Transformed by Jehovah so as not to experience the pangs of death
3,360-2,000: Sumerian and Accadian eras; Accadian peaked ca 2,230 BC, Sumerian peaked ca 2,000 BC
3,339-2,370: Methusaleh
3,152-2,377: Lamech

3,117 (3,114): Mayan Calendar:  The beginning of our current epoch based on Mayan calendar is claimed to have started on August 11, 3114 BCE is likely incorrect.  The end of our epoch can be confirmed to be the year 2012.  This because we have a major alignment of earth, our sun and the black hole in center of our Galaxy occurring on the winter solstice 2012.   

In reality the length of a Mayan epoch appears to be 5126 years based on Gregorian calendar.  This epoch will end in 2012 when the earth, the sun and the black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy are aligned once more.  Unfortunately, we have been changing our calendars "like the Gypsies change horses" (an old saying in the North) because a year is not exactly 365 days but 365.24 days.  This 0.24 days difference adds up 1230.24 days and when divided by the length of the real year we get 3.36 years.  Now  the difference between winter solstice and August 11th is 132 days or 0.36 years indicating that the previous change of the epoch was actually on the winter solstice day. To create maximum "upheaval" on earth the epoch must change on winter solstice when the Sun is between the earth and the black hole in the center of the universe.  

We should also add three years to the time to have the year also correct making the beginning to have happened in 3,117 BC. Close to this date we have had two important changes in the world: 1) we invented a single God religion that swept the other Gods from the Middle-East and Europe, and 2) we invented a simple writing of a phonetic language we call Sumerian .

3,000: Copper Mining started in Cyprus.
3,000: Sumerians practiced medical diagnostics through dreams, astrology, and sacrificial animal intestines
3,000: First Temple constructed at Uruk.
3,000-Present:
tihu
Written language appeared allowing man to record his ideas and experiments.   It appears that Sumerian writing was the first one in the West while the Chinese "writing" with "pictures" may have been already in use perhaps even two millenniums earlier.

This allowed future generations to expand all fields of human endeavor by building on the work and dreams of the previous generations.  The ability to communicate after the death would transform thehuman race  forever.

2,970-2,020: Noah
2,920-2,770: Egypt; 1st Dynasty in Egypt that was formed when Menes united the upper and lower Egypt (ca 3,000 BC)
2,800: Egypt; Pharaoh Zoser builds the first step Pyramid to become his tomb
2,800-1,500: Finland; Asbestos-Ceramic Culture in Finland.
2,770-2,650: Egypt;  2nd Dynasty in Egypt
2,700: China; Emperor Shen Nung invents Acupuncture in China
2,697: China; Time "begins" in China - year zero
2,680-2,575: Egypt;  3rd Dynasty, Beginning of Old Kingdom in Egypt.
2,600: Egypt;  King Djoser is attended by physician Imhotep in Egypt
2,590: Egypt; Cheops begins constructing his Great Pyramid in Egypt
2,575-2,467: Egypt;  4th Dynasty Old Kingdom in Egypt
2,570: Egypt;  Pharaoh Kheops completes his tomb, an almost 150 meters high pyramid in Gizah
2,550: Egypt;  Pharaoh Kahfre commissions building his tomb next to Kheops pyramid
2,500-2,000: Finland's largest arkeoastronominen discovery: the giant ancient churches was observed in the Sun. 05.14.2009 at 22.08, the author Marko Pekkola Categories: Earth and the nearby space , Sky Phenomena Ostrobothnia I left the churches throughout Northern Europe's largest Stone Age monuments. Until now, their use has remained a mystery. A new study shows that I left the churches have been observed in the position of the sun in the sky. The results have been achieved in a broad arkeoastronomisessa project, the University of Helsinki, astronomer Marianna Ridderstad and the University of Oulu archaeological Jari Okkonen started over a year ago. Jätinkirkoiksi-called ancient structures found only in Ostrobothnia, where they have been found in about 40 pieces. The largest giant churches vallimuodostelmia are rectangular in shape, with a length of 50-60 meters. The smallest giant churches are about 15 meters long, and some of them could be large residence walls. "The enigmatic structures over decades, the suspect when miksikin. They have been speculated to dwell in, linnoiksi, cemeteries, seal meat in cold stores and prey kokoonajoaitauksiksi, "says Marianna Ridderstad Stars and Space magazine, online news. Ridderstadin Okkonen and the results show that the giant churches are made astronomical observations. This is the highest ever arkeoastronominen the discovery of our country. "I left the Church is built in such a way that the gate openings is possible to observe the Sun rises and falls in the eight most important solar flow related to the time of the solstice, equinoxes and the so-called intermediate days," Ridderstad says. Sun trends found especially in the biggest and best-preserved churches I left the Allies of World War I. Ostrobothnia ancient solar observatories built around 2500-2000 BC, ie at a time when agriculture had just arrived. I left the builders of churches, however, lived a hunter-gatherer economy. "Farming culture arrived with new ideas probably influenced profoundly still stone through the formerly Community", Ridderstad evaluated. "Sun checking movements of the heavenly bodies arrived in Finland monitoring the calendar, and at the same time a new understanding of the time." Project results released today by the international scientific articles arxiv.org online service, and in Finland this Stars and Space magazine, online news story. Marianna Ridderstadin populaariartikkeli of the following stars and space magazine. More (in English): http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0905/0905.2035.pdf Figure Ollisbackenin I left the Church of the menhir that is unable to stone. Photo Jari Okkonen
2,500-1,500: India;  Beginning of Indus Vally civilization (to c.1500).
2,500: Palestine;  Canaanite tribes settle in Palestine.
2,500: Egypt;  Use of papyrus by Egyptians.
2,500-2,000: Sweden;  the early hunter-gatherers and farmers were followed by ethnolinguistic? group, the boat-ax, battle-ax, or single grave people, named for their stone weapons and graves.  They may have been Indo-European speaking nomads who spread across much of northern Europe and may have also established cultural dominance over the earlier peoples of southern and central Sweden.  This is evidenced throughout middle and northern parts of Sweden and Norway where many of the places are named using the Finnish language.
2,500-2,000: Shem
2,465-2,323: Egypt;  5th Dynasty Old Kingdom in Egypt
2,370: "Global" flood begins in November. Was it breaking of land barrier in Gibraltar?
2,368-1,930: Arpachshad
2,333-1,900: Shelah
2,323-2,152: Egypt;  6th Dynasty Old Kingdom in Egypt
2,303-1,893: Eber
2,300: China;  Chinese Emperor Fhu Shi creates a cosmic theory of Yin and Yang
2,300: Mesopotamian empire established.
2,269: Peleg
2,239;  Babylon; Tower of Babel. During the days of Peleg, Jehovah God confused the language of the people working on the Tower of Babel and the building of a mighty city in opposition to Jehovah. The people were thus scattered taking their God-defying, false religious practices with them. Thus was the beginning of Babylon the Great, the mother of [spiritual] harlots and of the disgusting things of the earth.
2,239-2,000: Reu
2,207-1,977: Serug
2,200-2,000: Africa;   200 year drought in North and East Africa, shows a s black ice in ice samples from Kilimanjaro
2,200: China;  Beginning of Xia dynasty in China.
2,200: Europe;  Copper was smelted in Europe.

2,200-2,000: Finland;  Pyyhesilta Culture in Finland.

Pyyhesilta

2,177-2,029: Nahor
2,150-1,986: Egypt; First Intermediate Period (7th - 11th Dynasties) in Egypt.  The priests overthrew the Pharaohs in 2,100 BC and formed a feudalistic system to control Egypt.
2,148-1,943: Terah, father of Abraham.  Abraham is considered to be the father of three different religions: Jews, Christians and Muslims.
2,100: Construction of Ziggurat at Ur.
2,100-135: Hebrews, left Ur under Abraham's guidance and moved to North-Eastern Egypt.  Were persecuted by Ramses II that ended to exodus from Egypt under Moses in 1513 BC; then settled to Canaan lands.  The 12 tribes ruled first by Judges, 1150 BC, then under three Kings, Saul, David and Salomon, who built the Temple in Jerusalem.  The tribes then split to Israel and Judah.  Assyrians conquered Israel in 722 BC;  In 586 BC the Babylonian ruler Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Jerusalem and slaved the Jews to exile in Babylon.  Nebuchadnezzar built also the hanging gardens of Babylon.  After Persia conquers Babylon, in 537 BC, the Jews were repatriated to their homeland.  Judah was conquered by Alexander the Great 332 BC when he destroyed the Persian empire, then by the Romans in 63 BC, and after Rome by Islam in 637, until 1946 AD, minus a few crusades by the Christians.
2,018-1,843: Abraham; Hebrews left Ur under Abraham's guidance and moved to North-Eastern Egypt.  Abraham was born in the Chaldean City of Ur (Northern Mesopotania) where his father Terah lived; and which was under the rule of the Chaldeans — now southeastern Turkey (identified with Urartu, or claiming Abraham was born in Urfa), or the nearby Urkesh, which others identify with “Ur of the Chaldee."